Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Library has increased with the complexity of our society. The rapid growth of technology has meant that many gadgets and equipment have appeared and continuous progress of the world the help of the Science and Technology. Library is considered the heart of the school it is expected to be taken care of for its normal functioning day by day. Many students, workers, and researchers need varies value information that are provided by the library and giving them important data that they need. At the same time libraries are progressing as the whole world progress. The world we live it seems so easier now because of the fast growing high technology that were given by the inventors. In the same phase of this statement, we have to aim the perception of the students in a particular library, are they satisfied regarding the services provided by the library, and are they comfortable. Library is derived from the French word Ã¢â¬Å"librairieÃ¢â¬ in Latin Ã¢â¬Å"liberÃ¢â¬ means book. It is an organized collection of information resources made accessible to a defined community for reference. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A libraryÃ¢â¬â¢s collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microforms, CDs, cassettes, video tapes, DVDs, e-books, audio books, database, and other formats. A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who chose not to Ã¢â¬â or cannot afford to Ã¢â¬â purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition libraries are expected with provision to ensure maximum and availability of collection of all references needed, there by showing the satisfactory use of the library materials through adequate range and quality services. Administration should enforced proper coordination between the faculty and the library staffs in promoting effective use of library resources by the students. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital tools. In the Philippines, the national library can trace its history to the establishment of the Museo-Biblioteca de Filipinas (Museum-Library of the Philippines), established by royal order of the Spanish government on August 12, 1887. It opened on October 24, 1891 at the Casa de la Monedain Intramuros, then home of the Philippine Mint, with around 100 volumes and with both Julian Romero and Benito Perdiguero as director and archivist-librarian, respectively. Romero resigned in 1893 and was briefly replaced by Tomas Torres of the Escuela de Artes y OfÃ cios in Bacolor, Pampanga (now the Don Honorio Ventura College of Arts and Trades), who in turn was replaced by Don Pedro A. Paterno on March 31, 1894. By that time, the library had moved to a site in Quiapo near the present site of the Masjid Al-Dahab. Later on, Paterno published the first issue of the BoletindelMuseo-Bibliotecade Filipinas (Bulletin of the Museum-Library of the Philippines) on January 15, 1895. The Museo-Biblioteca was abolished upon the onset of the America colonization of the Philippines. By the time of its abolition, the library held around 1,000 volumes and averaged around 25-30 visitors a day. The entire collection would later be transferred at PaternoÃ¢â¬â¢s expense to his own private library, of which some books would form the basis for the Filipiniana collection of subsequent incarnations of the national library. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library) In the University of Cagayan Valley, library offers studentÃ¢â¬â¢s service such as informational service, Wi-Fi connection, and internet connection. In this way, the University of Cagayan Valley is getting for the best in uplifting the quality and trainingÃ of the students as the costumers of the institution. The University of Cagayan Valley operates with the open shelves and internet system. Book holdings are classified according to the Dewey decimal classification schemed, it consists of different section namely; the general reference section; periodicals; reserve section; circulation; filipiniana and reading room. Many students found it difficult to utilize the services just like the BSMT students perceptions in the library regarding of their services which in the internet system there are no printing machine provided to the students that they can use therefore, this is one of the reason which struck the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to conduct a research in order to know and evaluate how tertiary students perceive in the delivery of services of the library. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions as well as the recommendations Summary of Findings: 1. Age Ã¢â¬â The frequency highest frequency of BSMT students from 2nd Ã¢â¬â 3rd year was 18 years old followed by 17, 19, 20, 21, and the last is 22. 2. Gender Ã¢â¬â The majority was male having percentage of 90% while the female is 10% only. 3. Civil Status Ã¢â¬â All respondents was single. 4. Religion Ã¢â¬â The Roman Catholic is the highest frequency having percentage of 97% and 3% only for the other religion. 5. Students Ã¢â¬â There 509 BSMT students from 2nd Ã¢â¬â 3rd Year of the University of Cagayan Valley and only 100 students who were chosen through random sampling. Conclusion: The data gathered showed by this study pertaining to the respondents profile were contributive to the effectiveness of the subject under the study. From the findings of the study, it could be further concluded that the perception of the BSMT students on the services of the library of UCV is often. BIBLIOGRAOHY Serafin D. Quiazon, Ã¢â¬Å"Reflecting of the Staff Development of the National LibraryÃ¢â¬ , Bulletin of the National Library association. NIV (March-June 1972) p. 8. Ferdinand Marcos, 46th General Conference International Federation of library Association and Institution. (Manila: IFLA, 1980), p. 5. Philippine Library Association, Bulletin of the Philippine Library Association. Vol. 7, Nos, 1-4. P. 53. Dr. Lino Arquiza, Ã¢â¬Å"The administrators Role in Developing Library ServiceÃ¢â¬ . p.2(114 JPL 27 (1&2): pp. 109-150) Veranda C. Sernande, May 2004, LIBRARY RESOURCE, FACILITIES AND SERVICES OF THE PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION ON THE CAGAYAN VALLEY REGION (Dissertation). Denny, Carolyn Ann King, A survey of UserÃ¢â¬â¢s Attitudes Towards the Resources and Sources of the Three University Libraries in Saudi Arabia, Dissertation Abstract International, 55 (1995) Internet Resource http://www.studymode.com/essays/Review-Of-Related-Studies-1320212.html http://nnlm.gov/mar/about/valuerelated.html http://www.studymode.com/essays/Review-Of-Related-Studies-1397981.html Title: Production Scheduling for Manufacturing Execution System Author: SteÃ¯ ¬â¬en Lamparter, Lars Jordan Farzana Shafique, Islamia University, Bahawalpur. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Review-Of-Related-Studies-1397981.html http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/baskaran.htm http://paarl.wikispaces.com/file/view/Evaluation+of+Standards+for+Acad+Libraries.pdf Title: AN EVALUATION OF STANDARDS FOR Ã
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Commanding Heights: Episode 3 (Chapters 11-14); available at online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/lo/story/index.html Ã¢â¬â With communism discredited, more and more nations harness their fortunes to the global free-market. China, Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and Latin America all compete to attract the developed worldÃ¢â¬â¢s investment capital, and tariff barriers fall. In the United States Republican and Democratic administrations both embrace unfettered globalization over the objections of organized labor. But as new technology and ideas drive profound economic change, unforeseen events unfold. A Mexican economic meltdown sends the Clinton administration scrambling. Internet-linked financial markets, unrestricted capital flows, and floating currencies drive levels of speculative investment that dwarf trade in actual goods and services. Fueled by electronic capital and a global workforce ready to adapt, entrepreneurs create multinational corporations wi th valuations greater than entire national economies. When huge pension funds go hunting higher returns in emerging markets, enterprise flourishes where poverty once ruled, but risk grows, too. In Thailand the huge reservoir of available capital proves first a blessing, then a curse. Soon all Asia is engulfed in an economic crisis, and financial contagion spreads throughout the world, until Wall Street itself is threatened. A single global market is now the central economic reality. As the force of its effects is felt, popular unease grows. Is the system just too complex to be controlled, or is it an insidersÃ¢â¬â¢ game played at outsidersÃ¢â¬â¢ expense? New centers of opposition to globalization form and the debate turns violent over who will rewrite the rules. Yet prosperity continues to spread with the expansion of trade, even as the gulf widens further between rich and poor. Imbalances too dangerous for the system to ignore now drive its stakeholders to devise new means to include the dispossessed lest, once again, terrorism and war destroy the stability of a deeply interconnected world. The Bush Bailout Plan (Rounds 1 and 2) Round 1: Allow the Treasury to borrow up to $700 billion to buy mortgage-related assets from US financial institutions over the next 2 years. Ã¢â¬âMay stabilize the capital markets ( could protect investment and retirement funds) Ã¢â¬â MAY stabilize housing prices. Consequences of doing nothing: -Small businesses will fail. -Companies may not be able to make payroll -People, even those with good credit records, may not be able to get credit for mortgages, car loans, student loans, or credit cards. -People will lose jobs. Round 2: Same deal: with same possible benefits. House version of the bill: $350 billion upfront; $350 billion later unless congress holds it back. -NO new golden parachutes if the institution sells more than $300 million in assets -Must try to Ã¢â¬Å"claw backÃ¢â¬ past bonuses if based on misleading financial statements -No golden parachutes when the treasury has ownership stake in the firm (.ie., it is failing). Defined Contribution Retirement Plans Ã¢â¬â A defined contribution plan provides an individual account for each participant. The benefits are based on the amount contributed into the plan and are also affected by income, expenses, gains and loses. There are no promises of a set monthly benefit at retirement. Some examples of defined contribution plans include 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, employee stock ownership plans and profit sharing plans. Contagion Ã¢â¬â The tendency to spread, as of a doctrine, influence, or emotional state. When one nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is negatively affected because of changes in the asset PRICES of another countryÃ¢â¬â¢s financial market Foreign Direct Investment Ã¢â¬â Is when a firm invests resources in facilities to produce and/or market a product in a foreign country. Horizontal FDI versus Vertical FDI Ã¢â¬â Horizontal FDI: investment in the same industry in which a firm operates at home. Vertical FDI: investment in an industry that provides inputs for a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s domestic operations or that sells the outputs of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s domestic operations. Backward Vertical FDI versus Forward Vertical FDI- Backward vertical FDI: an investment in an industry abroad that provides inputs for a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s domestic production processes. Forward Vertical FDI: an investment in an industry abroad that sells the outputs of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s domestic production processes. BACKWARD vertical means that there are more places to help build the product. Stock versus Flow of FDI Ã¢â¬â Stock flow is the total accumulated value. Flow of FDI is the value over time. Gross Fixed Capital Formation Ã¢â¬â GFCF is a flow value. It is usually defined as the total value of additions to fixed assets by resident producer enterprises, less disposals of fixed assets during the quarter or year, plus additions to the value of non-produced assets (such as discoveries of mineral deposits, or land improvements). Greenfield Investment Ã¢â¬â Establishing a new operation Acquisition Ã¢â¬â When one firm buys an interest in another firm Merger Ã¢â¬â When two firms agree to integrate their operations on a relatively co-equal basis. Exporting Ã¢â¬â The sale of products produced in one country to residents of another country Licensing Ã¢â¬â when one firm (the licensor) grants the right to produce its product, use its production processes, or use its brand name or trademark to another firm (the licensee) Tacit versus Codified Knowledge Ã¢â¬â Tacit knowledge: information that is intuitive and difficult to articulate or codify in writing. (Can be gained through personal experience or interaction. Shared knowledge might be dispersed throughout the company.) Theoretical Explanations for FDI: Transportation Costs, Market Imperfections, Strategic Behavior, Product Life Cycle, and Location-Specific Advantages Ã¢â¬â Impediments to the Sale of Know-How Ã¢â¬â Impediments to the sale of know-how explain why firms prefer horizontal FDI to licensing. These impediments arise when: (a) a firm has valuable know-how that cannot be adequately protected by a licensing contract, (b) a firm needs tight control over a foreign entity to maximize its market share and earnings in that country, and (c) a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s skills and know-how are not amenable to licensing. Multi-Point Competition Ã¢â¬â Arises when two or more enterprises encounter each other in different regional markets, national markets, or industries. The Radical, Free Market and Pragmatic Nationalism Views of FDI Benefits and Costs of FDI for a Host Country Ã¢â¬â Resource transfer effects, employment effects, balance of payments effects, effect on competition and economic growth. Host country benefits from initial capital inflow when MNC establishes businessÃ¢â¬âFINANCIAL CREDIT Host country benefits if FDI substitutes for imports of goods and servicesÃ¢â¬âCURRENT ACCOUNTCREDIT Host country benefits when MNC uses its foreign subsidiary to export to other countriesÃ¢â¬âCredit on CURRENT ACCOUNT Resource-Transfer Effects: Capital, Technology and Management Employment Effects: Direct, Indirect, Substitution, and Acquisition Restructuring Ã¢â¬â -Mergers and acquisitions are quicker to execute. -Foreign firms have valuable strategic assets that would be risky and time consuming to develop. -Acquiring firm believes it can use its core competencies to increase the efficiency of the acquired firm. Balance-of-Payments Effects of FDI for the Home and Host Countries Ã¢â¬â Home country Ã¢â¬â The balance of payments account is improved by the inward flow of repatriated earnings. The balance of payments account is improved if the foreign subsidiary needs home country equipment, component parts, etc. National Sovereignty Ã¢â¬â Sovereignty is the exclusive right to control a government, a country, a people, or oneself. A sovereign is the supreme lawmaking authority. Benefits and Costs of FDI for a Home Country Ã¢â¬â Balance of payments effects, employment effects. Home Country Policies to Encourage and Restrict Outward FDI Ã¢â¬â Restrict: Limits on capital outflows, tax incentives to invest at home, Nation-specific prohibitions Encourage: Foreign Risk Insurance, Capital Assistance, Tax Incentives to Invest Abroad, Political Pressure. Host Country Policies to Encourage and Restrict Inward FDI Ã¢â¬â Restrict: Ownership Restraints Encourage: To gain from the resource-transfer and employment effects of FDI, to capture FDI away from other potential host locations. Performance Requirements Ã¢â¬â An expectation placed on a foreign direct thingy requiring them to do certain things like having some local employees. Basically, this puts restrictions on them like local production requirements. Regional Economic Integration Ã¢â¬ârefers to agreements among countries in a geographic region to reduce and ultimately remove, tariff and non-tariff barriers to the free flow of goods, services, and factors of production between each other. Levels of Economic Integration: Free Trade Area: Remove internal Barriers Customs Union: Common External Barriers Common Market: Free Movement of Factors Economic Union: Common Economic Policy Political Union: Political Integration The Case for and the Case against Regional Integration Ã¢ â¬â For: Increases world production, stimulates growth, regional economic integration can provide additional gains from free trade beyond the international agreements such as GATT and TWO. Against: a regional trade agreement is beneficial only if it creates more trade than it diverts. Impediments to Regional Integration Ã¢â¬â Nation as a whole may benefit but certain groups within countries may be hurt. Concerns about loss of national sovereignty and control over the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereignty and control over the nations monetary, fiscal and trade policies. Trade Creation versus Trade Diversion Ã¢â¬â When an inefficient non member nation replaces an efficient member nation (NAFTA). Like Mexico replacing China in the textile business. Creation: occurs when free trade leads to the substitution of inefficient domestic production for efficient production in another member country. Diversion: Occurs when efficient non-member production is replaced by inefficient production by a member nation as a result of high trade barriers for non-members. The European Union (EU) Ã¢â¬â is composed of 27 member countries, covers an area of 4 million square kilometers and has approximately 460 million inhabitants. The EUÃ¢â¬â¢s member states combined represent the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest economy by GDP, the seventh largest territory in the world by area and the third largest by population. Political Structure of the European Union: European Commission, Council of the European Union, European Parliament and Court of Justice Optimal Currency Area Ã¢â¬â In economics, an optimum currency area (OCA), also known as an optimal currency region (OCR), is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. It describes the optimal characteristics for the merger of currencies or the creation of a new currency. Cop enhagen Criteria Ã¢â¬â are the rules that define whether a nation is eligible to join the European Union. The criteria require that a nation have the institutions to preserve democratic governance and human rights, a functioning market economy, and that the nation accept the obligations and intent of the EU. The Lisbon Treaty Ã¢â¬â The Treaty of Lisbon (also known as the Reform Treaty) is a treaty designed to streamline the workings of the European Union (EU) with amendments to the Treaty on European Union (TEU, Maastricht) and the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEC, Rome), the latter being renamed Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) in the process. The stated aim of the treaty is Ã¢â¬Å"to complete the process started by the Treaty of Amsterdam and by the Treaty of Nice with a view to enhancing the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the Union and to improving the coherence of its action.Ã¢â¬ The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Pros and Cons of NAFTA Ã¢â¬â Pros: Labor intensive industries move to Mexico, resulting in better resource allocation, Mexico gets investment and employment, increased Mexican income to buy US/Canadian goods, demand for goods increases jobs, consumers get lower prices. Cons: Loss of jobs to Mexico for people who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have other employment options, Mexican firms have to compete against efficient US/Canadian firms, environmental degradation, loss of national sovereignty. The Andean Community Ã¢â¬â The Andean Community is mainly a trade block formerly called the Andean Group (Grupo Andino, in Spanish) which saw light after the Andean Pact (Pacto Andino) or more formally the Cartagena Agreement (Acuerdo de Cartagena) was signed in 1969, in Cartagena (Colombia). Mercado ComÃ ºn del Sur (MERCOSUR) Ã¢â¬â Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuala. Was originally envisioned as a common market but has yet to reach that goal. Critics contend the agreement results in more trade diversion than trade creation as a result of the high external tariffs. Free Trade Area of the Americas Ã¢â¬âwas a proposal to expand NAFTA to include all countries in the Western Hemisphere, except Cuba. This region has 850 million people and a $13.5 trillion economy. Talks are stalled and stronger support would be needed by the USA and Brazil for this agreement to become a reality. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) / ASEAN Free Trade Area Ã¢â¬â Ind onesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Total population of 500 million, GDP of US $740 billion, and a total trade of US $720 billion A free trade area among some of the nations exists, but several nations are refusing to lower all tariffs. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Ã¢â¬â Founded in 1990 to promote open trade and economic cooperation. Currently has 21 members including the United States, Japan and China. Members account for 57% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s GNP and 46% of global trade. Despite little progress, it could potentially become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest free trade area. Fiscal versus Monetary Policy Ã¢â¬â Market economies have regular fluctuations in the level of economic activity which we call the business cycle. It is convenient to think of the business cycle as having three phases. The first phase is expansion when the economy is growing along its long term trends in employment, output, and income. But at some point the economy will overheat, and suffer rising prices and interest rates, until it reaches a turning point Ã¢â¬â a peak Ã¢â¬â and turn downward into a recession (the second phase). Recessions are usually brief (six to nine months) and are marked by falling employment, output, income, prices, and interest rates. Most significantly, recessions are marked by rising unemployment. The economy will hit a bottom point Ã¢â¬â a trough Ã¢â¬â and rebound into a strong recovery (the third phase). The recovery will enjoy rising employment, output, and income while unemployment will fall. The recovery will gradually slow down as the economy once again assumes its long term growth trends, and the recovery will transform into an expansion. Foreign Exchange Market Ã¢â¬âa market for converting the currency of one country into the currency of another. Exchange Rate Ã¢â¬â the rate at which one currency is converted into another. Foreign Exchange Risk Ã¢â¬â the risk of an investmentÃ¢â¬â¢s value changing due to changes in the currency exchange rates. Arbitrage Ã¢â¬â the purchase of a product in one market for immediate resale in a second market in order to profi t from a price discrepancy. Currency Speculation Ã¢â¬â short-term movement of funds from one currency to another in hopes of profiting from shifts in exchange rates. Spot Exchanges Ã¢â¬âthe exchange rate at which a foreign exchange dealer would convert one currency to into another currency on that day. Forward Exchanges Ã¢â¬â the exchange rate at which a foreign exchange dealer will agree to convert one currency into another currency on a specific date in the future. Hedging: Forward Contracts versus Options Selling on a Discount versus Selling at a Premium Currency Swaps Ã¢â¬â A currency swap (or cross currency swap) is a foreign exchange agreement between two parties to exchange a given amount of one currency for another and, after a specified period of time, to give back the original amounts swapped. Economic Theories of Exchange Rate Determination Ã¢â¬â Law of One Price Ã¢â¬â The law of one price is an economic law stated as: Ã¢â¬Å"In an efficient market all identical goods must have only one price.Ã¢â¬ The intuition for this law is that all sellers will flock to the highest prevailing price, and all buyers to the lowest current market price. In an efficient market the convergence on one price is instant. Purchasing Power Parity Ã¢â¬â The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. Developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920, it is based on the law of one price: the theory states that, in an ideally efficient market, identical goods should have only one price. Big Mac Index Ã¢â¬â The Big Mac Index is an informal way of measuring the purchasing power parity (PPP) between two currencies and provides a test of the extent to which market exchange rates result in goods costing the same in different countries. As stated in The Economist, it Ã¢â¬Å"seeks to make exchange-rate theory a bit more digestibleÃ¢â¬ In 120 nations the big mac is the same. How Increasing the Money Supply Impacts Exchange Rates Price Discrimination Ã¢â¬â Price discrimination or yield management occurs when a firm charges a different price to different groups of consumers for an identical good or service, for reasons not associated with costs. Fisher Effect / International Fischer Effect Real versus Nominal Interest Rates 8% interest + 2%inflation = 10% nominal interest. $100 on $1000 loan. Investor Psychology and Bandwagon Effects The Efficient Market School versus the Inefficient Market School Ã¢â¬â Efficient: Those who believe the foreign exchange market actually predicts things accurately. Fundamental versus Technical Analysis Currency Convertibility: Freely, Externally, and Nonconvertible Currencies Capital Flight Ã¢â¬â Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets and/or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an economic event that disturbs investors and causes them to lower their valuation of the assets in that country, or otherwi se to lose confidence in its economic strength. This leads to a disappearance of wealth and is usually accompanied by a sharp drop in the exchange rate of the affected country (depreciation in a variable exchange rate regime, or a forced devaluation in a fixed exchange rate regime). Transaction versus Translation versus Economic Exposure Ã¢â¬â Economic exposure: the extent to which a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s future international earning power is affected by changes in exchange rates. Lead versus Lag Strategies Ã¢â¬â Lead: an attempt to collect foreign currency receivables when a foreign currency is expected to depreciate. Lag: An attempt to delay the collection of foreign currency receivables if that currency is expected to appreciate. Delay paying foreign currency payables if the foreign currency is expected to depreciate. International Monetary System Ã¢â¬â are institutional arrangements countries adopt to govern exchange rates. Exchange Rate Regimes: Formal Dollarization, Fixed, Currency Boards, Pegged, Dirty/Managed Floats and Independently Floating Ã¢â¬â The Gold Standard Ã¢â¬â Pegging currencies to gold and guaranteeing convertibility is known as the gold standard. Gold Par Value Ã¢â¬â The amount of a currency in an ounce, one ounce of gold was referred to as the gold par value. The Bretton Woods Exchange Rate System Ã¢â¬â Created a fixed exchange rate system where the countries agreed to peg their currencies to the US dollar which was convertible to gold at $35 an ounce. Countries agreed to defend the value of their currencies to within 1% of par value. Currency, Banking and Foreign Debt Crises Ã¢â¬â Currency speculators believed that the devaluation of the dollar was inevitable. President Nixon dropped the gold standard conversion and the dollar was devalued. Following a second round of speculative attacks, the US dollar was allowed to float against other world currencies. Concerns about the IMFÃ¢â¬â¢s Policy Prescriptions Ã¢â¬â The system of adjustable parities allowed for the devaluation of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s currency by more than 10 percent if the IMF agreed that a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s balance of payments was in Ã¢â¬Å"fundamental disequilibrium.Ã¢â¬ Moral Hazard Ã¢â¬â arises when people behave recklessly because they know they will be sav ed if things go wrong. Capital Market Ã¢â¬â The capital market is the market for securities, where companies and governments can raise longterm funds. The capital market includes the stock market and the bond market. Financial regulators, such as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, oversee the capital markets in their designated countries to ensure that investors are protected against fraud. The capital markets consist of the primary market, where new issues are distributed to investors, and the secondary market, where existing securities are traded. Cost of Capital Ã¢â¬â The cost of capital is an expected return that the provider of capital plans to earn on their investment. Initial Public Offering Ã¢â¬â Initial public offering (IPO), also referred to simply as a Ã¢â¬Å"public offeringÃ¢â¬ , is when a company issues common stock or shares to the public for the first time. They are often issued by smaller, younger companies seeking capital to expand, but can also be done by large privately-owned companies looking to become publicly traded. Commercial Banks versus Investment Banks Equity Loan: An equity loan is a mo rtgage placed on real estate in exchange for cash to the borrower. For example, if a person owns a home worth $100,000, but does not currently have a lien on it, they may take an equity loan at 80% loan to value (LTV) or $80,000 in cash in exchange for a lien on title placed by the lender of the equity loan. Debt Loans: A loan is a type of debt. This article focuses exclusively on monetary loans, although, in practice, any material object might be lent. Like all debt instruments, a loan entails the redistribution of financial assets over time, between the lender and the borrower. Corporate Bonds Ã¢â¬â A Corporate Bond is a bond issued by a corporation. The term is usually applied to longer-term debt instruments, generally with a maturity date falling at least a year after their issue date. Systematic Risk Ã¢â¬â In finance, Systemic Risk is that risk which is common to an entire market and not to any individual entity or component thereof. It can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"financial system instability, potentially catastrophic, caused or exacerbated by idiosyncratic events or conditions in financial intermediariesÃ¢â¬ . It refers to the movements of the whole economy and has wide ranging effects. It is also sometimes erroneously referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"systematic riskÃ¢â¬ . Portfolio Diversification Ã¢â¬â By using the global capital market, investors have a much wider range of investment opportunities than in a purely domestic capital market. The most significant consequence of this choice is that investors can diversify their portfolios internationally, thereby reducing their risk to below what could be achieved in a purely domestic capital market. Drivers of the Global Capital Market: Information Technology: Financial services is an information-intensive industry. It draws on large volumes of information about markets, risks, exchange rates, interest rates, creditworthiness, and so on. It uses this information to make decisions about what to invest where, how much to change borrowers, how much interest to pay to depositors, and the value and riskiness of a range of financial assets including corporate bonds, stocks, government securities, and currencies. Deregulation: Many restrictions have been crumbling in the US since the early 80s. In this part, this has been a response to the development of the Eurocurrency market, which from the beginning was outside of national control. Hot Money: In economics, hot money refers to funds which flow into a country to take advantage of a favorable interest rate, and therefore obtain higher returns. They influence the balance of payments and strengthen the exchange rate of the recipient country while weakening the currency of the country losing the money. These funds are held in currency markets by speculators as opposed to national banks or domestic investors. As such, they are highly volatile in Mexico and East Asian financial crisis. Patient Money: Selling land in large blocks under frontier conditions is to sell at a time before it begins yielding much if any rent. It is bid in by those few who have large discretionary funds of patient money. Eurocurrency Ã¢â¬â Eurocurrency is the term used to describe deposits residing in banks that are located outside the borders of the country that issues the currency the deposit is denominated in. For example a deposit denominated in US dollars residing in a Japanese bank is a Eurocurrency deposit, or more specifically a Eurodollar deposit. Attractions and Drawbacks of the Eurocurrency Market Attractions: Lack of government regulation. Drawbacks: When depositors use a regulated banking system they know that the probability of a bank failure that would cause them to lose their deposits is very low. Secondly, borrowing funds internationally can expose a company to foreign exchange risk. Reserve Requirements Ã¢â¬â The reserve requirement (or required reserve ratio) is a bank regulation that sets the minimum reserves each bank must hold to customer deposits and notes. These reserves are designed to satisfy withdrawal demands, and would normally be in the form of fiat currency stored in a bank vault (vault cash), or with a central bank. Foreign Bonds vs. Eurobonds: A Eurobond is an international bond that is denominated in a currency not native to the country where it is issued. It can be categorised according to the currency in which it is issued. London is one of the centers of the Eurobond market, but Eurobonds may be traded throughout the world Ã¢â¬â for example in Singapore or Tokyo. Attractions of the Eurobond Market Ã¢â¬â Absence of regulatory interference. Less stringent disclosure requirements than in most domestic bond markets. A favorable tax status. The Impact of Exchange Rate Risk on the Cost of Capital Benefits and Costs of Financial Globalization Inter-Temporal Trade Ã¢â¬â Consumption smoothing usually between advanced economies and developing economies. Developing economies need money NOW. Capital Mobility Ã¢â¬â The ability of money to cross national borders. The free flow of money in and out of a country. Impossible Trinity Ã¢â¬â The Impossible Trinity (also known as the Inconsistent Trinity, Triangle of Impossibility or Unholy Trinity) is the hypothesis in international economics that it is impossible to have all three of the following at the same time: Exchange Rate Stability, Independent Monetary Policy, and Capital Mobility. You can only have 2 of these 3 things at the same time ever. The Exchange Rate is simply the relative price of currencies. For example: It tells you how many Euros you can get for a dollar. A government has to main monetary policies it can use: The Fiscal Policy, or the Monetary Policy The Fiscal Policy concerns government expenditures and tax collection The Monetary Policy concerns the interest rate in the economy. The interest rates are established to help stabilize the economy.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Moby Dick - Essay Example Conversely, Starbuck had morals which provided him with opposing strength and a more honorable downfall than Ahab. Both men had a few similarities and were faced with the same challenges in whaling, the absence and presence of morals led the men to deal with the situation in different ways, and ultimately to distinct conclusions. To elaborate the thesis, we can see many instances available in the text. In Chapter cxxvi The Life-Buoy, when they were on a voyage to a rocky island, 'the bodings of the crew were destined to receive a most plausible confirmation in the fate of one of their number that morning' (p.517), there is certain exposition of prospective event that signals something to happen in future. "Indeed, in some sort, they were not grieved at this event, at least as a portent; for they regarded it, not as a foreshadowing of evil in the future, but as the fulfillment of an evil already presaged. They declared that now they knew the reason of those wild shrieks they had heard the night before. But again the old Manxman said nay." (p.518) The scene is described 'as the unsetting polar star, which through the livelong, arctic, six months' night sustains its piercing, steady, central gaze; so Ahab's purpose now fixedly gleamed down upon the constant midnight of the gloomy crew.' Furthermore, they feel as if 'it domineered above them so, that all their bodings, doubts, misgivings, fears, were fain to hide beneath their souls, and not sprout forth a single spear or leaf.' (p.528) If viewed critically and analytically, it may be affirmed that "In this foreshadowing interval too, all humor, forced or natural, vanished. Stubb no more strove to raise a smile; Starbuck no more strove to check one. Alike, joy and sorrow, hope and fear, seemed ground to finest dust, and powdered, for the time, in the clamped mortar of Ahab's iron soul. Like machines, they dumbly moved about the deck, ever conscious that the old man's despot eye was on them." (p.528) Everyone starts off at a common point but takes off at different speeds and on different roads. Ahab and Starbuck were generally the same in basic aspects. First, both of the men had strong beliefs. Ahab believed Moby Dick was evil and was destined to die at his hands. This belief was so strong that it led to obsession and destruction. In a similar fashion, Starbuck's strong belief in God led to his destruction for it prevented him from making the decision to kill Ahab and prevented him from destroying the entire crew. Second, Ahab and Starbuck both had a family. Apart from all of their whaling, their wives and sons were patiently waiting at home for their husbands' return from the voyage. Third, they both shared a common love for the sea Although crazed; Ahab still loved the ocean that he spent much of his life in. He expressed his love for the sea several times on his final whaling voyage remarking that the it's beauty soothed him. Starbuck spent much of his life on the ocean as well and enjoyed its adventures and beauty. In Chapter xxvi, Knights And Squires, Starbuck even respected the sea inhabitants and he
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Islam In The Modern World - Essay Example As Michalopoulos, Naghavi and Prarolo (2010) writes, there were several scattered oasis in the desert where vine, frankincense, myrrh, and spices were produced; however, the remaining people led nomadic life. In addition, the ones in and around Mecca were benefiting from their location as Mecca was located along the route connecting Europe to Yemen. Thus, people who traded and cultivated accumulated wealth while the remaining had a pathetic entity; and as a result of this unequal distribution of wealth, robberies and attacks were very common. It was during this social instability that Muhammad had his birth in 570 AD. Muhammad too was a Meccan merchant and was well aware of the social inequalities that existed in Arabia. At this juncture, it seems quite natural that Islamic principles stress heavily on income redistribution, limiting capital accumulation, and incentives for religious endowments as the basic principles of Quran; thus showing that the religion was mainly against the un wanted commercial practices. One cannot turn a blind eye to the importance Muhammad has given to business ethics and the way he has changed the very concept of Ã¢â¬Ëmaximum profit at any costÃ¢â¬â¢. He showed how ethical perspectives can be included in business. In the story of ShuÃ¢â¬â¢aib, people are advised to Ã¢â¬Ëgive just measure and weightÃ¢â¬â¢ and are directed that one should not withhold othersÃ¢â¬â¢ due (Hud 11:84-88). In addition, there is warning that ones worship will not be accepted if he earns Ã¢â¬ËharamÃ¢â¬â¢ (forbidden). There are a number of basic principles put forward by the Hadith regarding business dealings; they will not lie, will not misappropriate the trust when they are entrusted something, will give reasonable price for the things they buy, will not lie to get better price for the things they sell, and will not delay payments. In addition, the crimes in business dealings according to the Islamic principles involve interest on loans, gambli ng, prostitution, bribe, alcohol and drugs, torturing, selling defected items, and false witnesses. Another interesting directive from the prophet is the suggestion that one should not borrow money if he has enough to survive. In addition, the Prophet gives warning that one who charges interest for the money lent will be deprived of all blessings and it will lead to a war with Allah and His Messenger. Thus, it becomes evident that Muhammad was very much concerned about the existing commercialism in the Arabian land and wanted to have a total reform. Taking note of the increasing commercialism, he introduced Ã¢â¬ËzakatÃ¢â¬â¢ (legal alms giving) especially to kins, poor, and travelers. However, it was the teachings on poverty that helped Quran achieve great success. Protesting the construction of buildings in markets, and opposing tax or rent, he promoted Ã¢â¬ËsadagaÃ¢â¬â¢ (giving based on compassion). Kuran andTimur (2004) opine that it is this system of strict equality sugge sted by the Prophet that kept the Middle East economically backward while the western world made great strides. However, it is unwise to conclude that Commercialism was the only component that led to the origin of Islamism. Instead, Islamism was a fight against all
Saturday, July 27, 2019
For Coca Cola Marketing Analysis - Case Study Example Coca Cola is an example of such an establishment that has remained a proficient player in the beverage trade amidst the increasing competition in the industry. It was established in the nineteenth century and it is the market leader in producing, distributing and selling soft drinks in the international market. The company operates in nearly 200 nations and has invented over 400 brands since it was founded (The Coca Cola Company). Its leading brands include Coke, Sprite, and Stony among others. Their success has its major rivals at bay including Pepsi and Nestle. This case study gives an in depth analysis of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy and the potential issues facing the company. COMPANYÃ¢â¬â¢S OVERVIEW As far as the global manufacturing, distribution and sale of soft drinks are concerned, the Coca Cola company in the lead. The company was founded in 1886 in Atlanta Georgia by John Pemberton who was a pharmacist by profession (The Coca Cola Company). His formula was lat er purchased by Asa Chandler in 1891 and this marked the advent of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business achievement. It sells approximately 400 brands making it the top company in terms of market capitalization. Additionally, the entity enjoys impressive customer loyalty and has licensed distributors in over 200 countries. This fact ensures that the entity is in a position to segment its customers hence the high profitably levels. In spite of the harsh economic conditions, the company has remained financially stable over the years. This is due to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to adapt to cotemporary marketing strategies such as the use of online marketing through social media such as Twitter, MySpace and Face book (The Coca Cola Company). The company has a history of having a strong corporate culture that propelled the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success to date (The Coca Cola Company). For example, the company sponsored the FIFA 2010 World Cup and has constructed wildlife reserves. Potential Issues F acing the Company. Although the company has a huge part of the market share, it is clear that it faces stiff harsh competition from other key players in the industry. However, the company has been experiencing a constant increase in the stocks since 2008 as compared to its major rival Pepsi Co, Inc. Furthermore, the non Ã¢â¬â alcoholic industry is increasingly competitive with numerous companies. There are competitive products in the market including carbonated drinks, energy drinks, packaged juices and fresh juices. Other significant competitors of the company include, Cadbury Schweppes plc, Nestle and Groupe Danone (Lopez 25). The competitive factors are with regard to pricing, product innovation, sales promotion, dispensing equipment, packaging, and production techniques. Moreover, the company competes in terms of brand name and trade mark protection. The company faces other issues in their operations that may have an impact on its future. In the recent past there have been fl uctuations in the value of the dollar against the common currencies. The larger percentage of the entityÃ¢â¬â¢s income is generated outside the United States and owing to the strong performance of the dollar the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues from other parts of the world its profits may fall considerably (Lopez 38). The other issue facing Coca Cola is scarcity of water. The
Friday, July 26, 2019
BDX Organizational Information Technology Summary - Research Paper Example In addition to the small group, there is a larger group of contract personnel and consultants, who do not use the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s network. The following are the names of the key personnel in BDX: The title of the IT department is Computer Lab, and the number of staff in this department is three. Each staff is allocated various responsibilities, which range from software installation to information technology systems maintenance. The IT department is allocated 30 percent of the total budget. The budget includes employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s remunerations, purchase, and development of relevant information technology systems. The budget also includes maintenance fees for the various information technology systems in the company. There are users project leaders at the organization. These project leaders are concerned with research and development activities of the organization. They have the responsibility of ensuring that the organization is up-to-date with technology and making use of technology to enhance functions of the organizations. A web team exists which is led by Toni McEntire. Toni is the Network Administrator and he creates and maintains the BDX webpage. Two other employees assist Toni and they ensure that all technology-related items run smoothly; they include web updating and maintenance. The web team name is Fast Technology Innovators and it reports directly to the Network Administrator. The name is based on the mean age of the web team and the present situation in the technological world. The company has outsourced most of the functions such as help desk, stationaries, office equipment, and infrastructure materials. The move is to ensure that the company is not overwhelmed by the many functions. This also ensures that everyone in the company runs smoothly and as expected. There were no new hires last year and this is because of the fact that the company is still in its early development
Industrial Organization of Hot Rolled Steels Industry in India - Research Paper Example The present research has identified that hot roll steel is in high demand all over the world and even the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s growth is measured in terms of its production of steel, therefore components in this hot roll industry including the user demand, production, rate of growth, is always showing a positive trend. As per elasticity of demand, the hot roll steel industry in India is quite stable. Economies of scale, is one of the important reason for success of a firm in hot roll steel industry of India, the larger giants share more market. Raw materials are also one of the important factors in this industry. Steel billets are the major raw material along with other supporting raw materials. Mostly successful hot roll firms have their own production of steel billets, in order to avoid production delays and transportation costs. Hot roll steel product is an outcome of a metal rolling process that happens above the re-crystallization temperature of the metal. The raw material is typica lly big fragments of crude metal, for instance semi-finished casting items known as slabs, blooms, and billets. The metal billets or slabs are rolled from hot working rolls and the rollers produced a flat product that can be formed in coils as well as in hot rolled plates. There are two types of flat products resulting from a hot roll mill i.e. Plates or HR coils. More often plates are utilized directly. The HR coils (HRC) are utilized directly, but in addition to it, most of them are additively rolled and routed to manufacture products for example cold rolled sheets coils, galvanized or gal annealed sheets and coils, pipes etc.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Business Financing and the Capital Structure - Research Paper Example Concept of working capital management Working capital management is fundamentally described as a managerial technique to preserve the financial health of a company in repaying its short-term debts and simultaneously, sufficing the need for short-term operating expenses. Advantages of working capital management can be viewed in terms of increased earnings of a company. Contradictorily, the conceptual framework is often criticised to offer only short-term financial planning assistances to the users. Notably, working-capital ratio and inventory-turnover ratio can be regarded as the two vital instruments to assess the viability of working capital management strategies applied by a company (Rehn, 2012). Financial instruments that are used as marketable securities to park excess cash Marketable securities are mostly favored by investors owing to their high liquidity benefits. In this regard, Treasury bills, commercial papers, bankersÃ¢â¬â¢ acceptances and other forms of government bonds as well as common stocks can be noted as the financial instruments used as marketable securities by investors to park excess cash (Chudson, 1945). Question 2 Selection of equities and debts to raise business capital depend on diverse factors, which mainly include the micro-economic performance of the economy and the liquidity position along with the risk taking ability of the company. Equities raise the liability of the company to repay investors, but only if the total liabilities of the company are accounted to be inferior to the assets held, i.e. when profit is obtained. Another advantage of using equities is that the interests paid by the company to its equity shareholders are accounted as an organizational expense, which further allows a certain percentage of tax leverage to the company. However, concerning the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests to invest in equities, various factors can be identified as disruptive (Komaromi, 2006). For instance, the purchase decision of equities of ten depends on the probability of business earning profits, and hence, investors tend to purchase equities when businesses are at their growth stage. Again, current fluctuations may also be identified to impose significant effects on the investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior towards purchasing equities. Concerning the current market scenario in the US, fluctuations can be apparently observed in the equities market, owing to its macro-economic volatility (Reuters, 2013). Therefore, a company must ensure its growth phase as well as preserve good liquidity position to market its equities and obtain adequate capital. On the other hand, debts do not involve uncertainty on the basis of investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions and behaviors. Therefore, businesses may not be required to ensure a growth phase while obtaining debts through short-term or long-term modes. It is worth mentioning in this context that although a business need not face the risk of uncertainty in capital allocation, it might require ensuri ng healthy liquidity ratio (Komaromi, 2006). Additionally, interest rate fluctuations observed in the current performance of the US may also have a negative implication for a company to opt for fund raising through debts. To be precise, the interest rates in the US are observed currently as rising and are further expected to rise in the near future, which might increase liabilities of the company deciding upon raising funds through debts (Conerly, 2013). Apparently, both the fund raising options have certain
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Antibacterial - Essay Example Their benefit in the medical field and personal hygiene notwithstanding, antimicrobial exhibit certain side effects. Introduction Antibacterial are host of compounds or substances that inhibit or retard the growth of bacteria. They belong to a larger family of compounds known as antimicrobials among which are antifungal and antiviral compounds. Chemically, antibacterial can be isolated from living organisms, obtained by chemical modification of natural compounds or synthesized (Von Nussbaum, 2006). Aminoglycosides, such as streptomycin, are classes of antibacterials that are isolated from living systems. Compounds, such as sulfonamides, that have antibacterial property are obtained solely by chemical synthesis. Semi-synthetic modification of natural compounds also yield antibacterial compounds such as penicillin. The biological activity of antibacterials differs. Some function by killing the target bacteria as in bactericidal agents, while others slow down the growth or reproduction of the bacteria as in bacteriostatic agents (Calderon and Sabundayo, 2007). Bactericidal agents are further grouped as bactericidal disinfectants, bactericidal antiseptic, and bactericidal antibiotics. Several factors, which include the host defense mechanism, the location of the infection, and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the antibacterial, affect the outcome of antibacterial therapy with antibacterial compound (Pankey and Sabeth, 2004). The concentration of the antibacterial also affects its biological activity of antibacterials, thus in vitro characterization of antibacterial activity commonly includes the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the antibacterial agent being investigated. To ascertain the drug efficacy of an antibacterial, its antibacterial activity is usually combined with its pharmacokinetic profile, and results of other pharmacological parameters obtained during clinical studies. Mode of action of antibacterials The mode of action of antibacterial differs; indeed, this difference offers a criterion for classification of antibacterials as either bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Some bactericidal agents, such as penicillin, target the bacterial cell wall, while some, for example polymixins, disrupt cell membrane, and another group of bactericidal agents, for instance sulfonamides, interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (Calderon and Sabundayo, 2007). Antibacterial agents that are bacteriostatic in action, such as tetracyclines, target protein synthesis and eventually slow down the growth or reproduction of the bacteria (Calderon and Sabundayo, 2007). Bactericidal agents have found use as disinfectants, antiseptics and antibiotics. For instance, chloroxylenol, a phenolic, is the active antibacterial ingredient in Dettol (Acenzi, 1996), a household disinfectant and antiseptic. Figure 1. Chemical structure of chloroxylenol Chloroxylenol functions by disrupting the cell membrane potential of bacteria. Potassium permanganate, KmnO4, is a strong oxidizing agent that has find application as an antibacterial agent. It is used as antiseptic and disinfectant for treating aquariums and swimming pools. Mere exposure of KmnO4 to sunlight yields oxygen through its decomposition. 2 KMnO4(s) > K2MnO4(s) + MnO2(s) + O2(g) The oxygen oxidizes the cell membrane of the bacteria resulting in the loss of structure and ultimately, cell lysis and death of the bacteria.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal - Essay Example The author made references to similar instances which apparently happened and documented through the experiment conducted by Philip G. Zimbardo, a psychology professor at Stanford University. Likewise, the reasons for the change in behavior were likewise supported through another set of experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram, which were discussed extensively in the article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Perils of ObedienceÃ¢â¬ published in HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s in 1973. Using these resources, the current discourse hereby asserts that the behavior of the American guards could be explained from the findings of experiments espoused by Zimbardo and Milgram. Analysis of the Situation To enable one to effectively respond to the question, there is a need to establish an examination of the situation that led these American soldiers to act viciously. As noted by Szegedy-Maszak (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"while many theories have been advanced about the forces that tragically came together at Abu Ghraib--inadequate traini ng, overzealous intelligence gathering, failure of leadership--none can adequately account for the hardening of heart necessary for such sadismÃ¢â¬ (p. 174). The article written by Jehl and Schmitt (2004) and published in The New York Times provided a more vivid scenario that presented conditions that set the stage for the apparent sadistic behavior. According to the authors, the members of the military police battalion who were sent to Iraq to serve as prison guards were untrained, unprepared, and completely inexperienced in this particular endeavor. Likewise, the Abu Ghraib prison was described as to detain as much as 7,000 prisoners, from an initial capacity of 2,000; which contributed to increasingly chaotic conditions, difficulties in overseeing, and effecively controlling security conditions. It was revealed that Ã¢â¬Å"in Abu Ghraib the soldiers suddenly found themselves under attack virtually every night from insurgents outside the prisonÃ¢â¬ (Jehl & Schmitt: A trouble d unit, 2004, par. 19). The threat was reported to necessitate the infusion of military intelligence officers. These officers were noted to be the ultimate source of abuse. Factors that Explain the Behavior of American Guards In ZimbardoÃ¢â¬â¢s experiments, it was explicitly noted that abuses and atrocities actually ensued from the very power that was accorded to the students, enacting the security guardsÃ¢â¬â¢ roles. As emphasized, from initially starting as ensuring that Ã¢â¬Å"they must maintain Ã¢â¬Ëlaw and orderÃ¢â¬â¢ in this prison, that they were responsible for handling any trouble that might break out, and they were cautioned about the seriousness and potential dangers of the situation they were about to enterÃ¢â¬ (Zimbardo, 1973, p. 41), the presence of the following factors were actually evident and similar to the Abu Ghraib prison: (1) power to maintain law and order; (2) imminent threats from prisoners or from external sources of chaos that could endanger the ir lives; (3) the apparent need to conform to the norms of society in terms of responding to the social pressures of the prison environment; and, likewise, (4) the natural response for the application of forms of sadism, to purportedly control prisoners or make them submit to the orders given, with or without justifiable rationales. Using the experiment conducted by Milgram (1973), one could evaluate that the power of obedience was expected to have been ingrained in every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s being; and thereby, prison guards who are expected to be followed with regards to orders being directed to prisoners, resort to the authority and powers vested in them, to inflict whatever action is deemed necessary to enable their subjects to react and respond, as directed. As
Monday, July 22, 2019
Fire Fighting Profession And It Is Portrayal In The Media Essay The occupation of the fire fighters is one of the dangerous profession and the toughest in the American history. It can not be disputed what these patriotic citizen have done to the country during the times of need and their efforts have to be recognized. However some of the media stations have come out to refute their roles and instead they give the negative side of their work. This paper tries to bring out the role played by the media in portraying them in the negative light and at the same time the paper will show how the media has managed to portray them as heroes during the World Trade Center episode. Most of the media stations have highly given the image of the fire fighters in the negative way other than in the positive manner (Griffith 2007). The firefighters have been depicted as greed workers who are only interested in spending tax payerÃ¢â¬â¢s money carelessly, which is not true. This has been pointed out by several politicians who are in Left Wing Conservatives through the media in the radio talks. Usually the aim of these politicians is to oppose the government. The media has gone as far as bringing about sexual discrimination while referring to the firefighters, actually there was no female name which appeared on the wall of honors although we know that even women firefighters also died during the World Trade Center episode moreover, they have been demonstrated as not being time conscious in that much destructions has been done in their presence at the fire sites. In reality, if the case is analyzed critically, these negative claims that have been made towards the media sounds to be full of irony. According to Baigent et al, (2003), firefighters consider their jobs as a vocational profession towards the need of the citizens. One remains to wonder why the firefighters are being referred as being greedy and that they waste most of the tax payerÃ¢â¬â¢s money while most of the fire fighters are not funded by the government of the United States of America. Most of them are being proud of their profession regardless of the dangers exposed to them. Very few people would decide to venture in such a wanting profession which is posed with catastrophic adventures, but for them they have decided to save the citizens at their own expense. They have come out strongly to portray themselves to the public as service men who have courage and who are ready to face challenges so as to save the nation at large. At the same time they can be regarded as patriotic citizens to the United States of America. Most of the people in the public have come out to face the realities about the firefighters regardless of the negative portrayal by the media. People agree that the firefighters need to be paid a lot of money for their services since it is one of the risk occupations they venture into. (Baigent and Hill, 2003) After the tragic 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre in New York, the firefighters were regarded as Heroes of the Nation. Although heroes are not born but made through profession, it can be said that at this time they were made through their endeavor sacrifices because they really risked their lives to save people. It is estimated that thousands of firefighters responded to this episode of the World Trade Center and at the same time many perished while trying to save the lives of their fellow brothers and sisters who needed their services at that moment. During this time many firefighters arrived at the scene but unfortunately most of them died while trying to save the lives and salvage properties worth billions of money. According to Griffiths (2007), 353 firefighters of those who responded to the attacks died and many succumbed to serious injuries but those who survived continued to with their work. At the same time these servicemen had to come from the furthest distance of the city to save the nation. For thousands of horrified workers who fled the terrorist attacks, the most remarkable sight during that time was the wave of the determined firefighters who were advancing towards the burning sky. After the terror day in New York in the United States of America, all of the fire fighters were therefore hauled and applauded as the true heroes of the nation by both the media and the public at large. They were treated with a lot of respect all over the country. In response to their heroic deeds, the media started to portray them as heroes by using different ways for example by filming them as heroes, portraying them in television talks as heroes and at the same time the media industries started to award them to motivate them to increase their input in the society. All in all, the firefighters are heroes who work because they love their risky profession without asking for any extra compensation and they need to be given respect. References: Baigent, D. , and Hill, R. 2003. Sunrise: Training Firefighters today as emergency Service workers for tomorrow. Cambridge: Anglia Polytechnic University. Griffiths, L, John, 2007. Fire Department of New York-An Operational Reference. New York.
The New Face of Hunger Essay Abstract Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The world is facing a new food crisis. Agricultural countries are experiencing the major shift in demand, and need time to reach the new economic equilibrium. There are several possible solutions to that, but none of them can improve the situation in the short run. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The problem Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The New Face of HungerÃ¢â¬ discusses the food problems the world currently faces (The Economist, 2008). As the world is entering the Ã¢â¬Å"new unsustainable and politically risky periodÃ¢â¬ , agricultural countries are unable to increase food production (The Economist, 2008). Equatorial countries experience persistent food riots. Haiti, Cameroon, Egypt, and Philippines have already turned food scarcity into an international political issue. The basic food products have experienced price increase in 2007: Ã¢â¬Å"last year wheat prices rose 77% and rice 16%Ã¢â¬ (The Economist, 2008). The majority of the smaller farmers do not know the reasons of such dramatic economic changes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The causes Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To economic professionals, the reasons of food crisis are more than evident. First, the price increase reflects the changes in demand. Indian and Chinese populations consume more food as they are becoming richer. The demand is seriously impacted by Ã¢â¬Å"western biofuels programmes, which convert cereals into fuelÃ¢â¬ (The Economist, 2008). Second, the current market situation also impacts the major export quotas, and promotes panic-buying economic behavior (The Economist, 2008). Third, the farmers cannot immediately react to the changes in market demand and export quotas. Food production requires time. As governments were trying to soften the impact of rising good price on domestic markets, farmers did not receive economic signals from external markets, and did not have any opportunity to adjust their production to the new market requirements. Moreover, to produce more food, farmers need time to grow it. They need more land, which should be suitable for agricultural needs. Undoubtedly, farmers will be able to cope with the food crisis in future, and will increase their production scales to fit the new demand, but is clear that Ã¢â¬Å"the transition to the new equilibrium is proving costlier, more prolonged, and much more painful than anyone had expectedÃ¢â¬ (The Economist, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Solutions Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ideally, the 450 million of small farmers would be able to resolve the food crisis. Those who live in developing countries and own no more than several acres, could supply the world with food products, reducing their own poverty, improving environment, and promoting economic efficiency of food production: Ã¢â¬Å"in terms of returns on investment, it would be easier to boost grain yields in Africa from two tones per hectare to four than it would be to raise yields in Europe from eight tonnes to tenÃ¢â¬ (The Economist, 2008). However, small farmers seem pessimistic about these plans. The planted areas are cut back as their owners cannot afford purchasing fertilizers (The Economist, 2008). In addition, agricultural production cannot immediately respond to the changing demand. Higher yields need better irrigation and fancier seeds, which cannot be produced or found overnight (The Economist, 2008). Ã¢â¬Å"The time lag between dreaming up a new seed and growing it commercially in the field is ten to 15 yearsÃ¢â¬ (The Economist, 2008). This is why none of the proposed solutions would help resolving the food issue in the short run. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I personally think that we should prepare ourselves to the long period of reaching a new economic equilibrium. It is true that the era of cheap products is over. Even when farmers finally manage to produce more, the price will hardly go down. As the average farm size has fallen from 1.5 to 0.5 hectares, small farmers are facing more difficulties in responding to higher food prices. We can only rely on the two factors: the growing food supply, which will slowly increase with time, and technologies and research, which will hopefully promote better yields without increasing the average farm size. In any case, agricultural production requires time. As there are no possible solutions which could help resolve the issue in the short run, we have nothing but to wait until the situation is improved. References The Economist. (2008). The new face of hunger. The Economist.com. Retrieved April 28, 2008, from http://www.economist.com/world/international/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11049284
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Generation Gaps in Culture Literature Review 2.1.Introduction This chapter deals with the main theme which is Ã¢â¬Ëthe Generation GapÃ¢â¬â¢ and also analyses the general notion of Generation Gap. It will discover the causes of Generation Gap as well as revealing the analysis of the causes and the effects on the society in general. 2.2The concept of Generation Gap Ã¢â¬ËGeneration GapÃ¢â¬â¢ is a term generally used to define the differences in culture, thought and behaviour between younger generations and their elders. It can be also described as the changes taking place when older and younger people are unable to comprehend each other because of their different experiences, attitudes, lifestyles and activities. A generation is Ã¢â¬Å"a select group born during the same years that experienced momentous events during significant development cyclesÃ¢â¬ (Kupperschmidt, 2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Generation gapÃ¢â¬ was heavily researched in the 1960s and 1970s (Smith, 2000). With the ongoing process of life, there will always be new generations. As society continues to progress and new technological innovations develop, a generation gap will continuously be predominant. The old are completely convinced that the ideas they have had throughout their lives are the ultimate and ideal. They disregard certain vital issues that are no longer valid in the case of modernityÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (Neff, 2011). The changes that occur as society evolves will never allow for complete agreement between generations. The Generation Gap is one of the perhaps most debatable issues of the era (Aliampi, 1969). A generation is based on the range of birth years of a group of people. Generations may span several centuries from the time when people are individuals. Not all members of a generation demonstrate the same personalities. Generation differences were apparent in societal movements or changes (Brunswick, 1970). Generation gaps are unavoidable occurrences that take place in society. These changes in society arise because people become accustomed to an unstable environment. As our society progresses, people tends to change their likes and dislikes. These changes in society are important for development. 2.3History of the Generation Gap Even though there has been changes between the generations all the time, until the twentieth century the drastic transformations that the term implies were not greatly in evidence. Previously during that era, society was not considerably mobile. Normally, young people were living in extended families. They were either working on their personal farm or in a relative business. With the introduction of TV and shows, the youngsters were exposed to traditional impacts unfamiliar to their own relatives and values (Adcox, 2015). The 1920s presented the younger generation to jazz melody and disco galleries, consequently constructing a gap between them and their seniors. But the actual reason behind the widening of the generation gap lies in the 1950s (Baby Boomers) when the soldiers had just come back from wars and started having kin. The veteran was actually a little harsh in nature and disliked the young who were greatly influenced by the arrival of the rock way of life. The generation gap of the 1960s was because the older generation had severe values that the younger generation disagreed and they rebelled. Different diversions of pop culture were created, like Rock and Roll, Discos, and hippies. The following great gap was generated in 1980s that presented the MTV era (Pop, Rock, etc.) come from all parts covering the new generation completely different from their seniors. This gap begun widening enormously in the 1990s and now prolonged in leaps and bounds (The Generation Gap in India). 2.4Types of Generations 2.4.1Generation 1 (1900s Ã¢â¬â 1920s) The generation of the 1900s Ã¢â¬â 1920s had a life expectancy of 47 years. Families were outsized during that time and infant death was high. Around a fifth of women were losing their lives in childbirth. Delivery was done at home itself. They were doing teamwork, accepting the hierarchical chain of command and performing all the task without complaining (Codrington, 2008). Tradition and history guided their attitudes and beliefs. Individuals of this generation were Ã¢â¬Å"past oriented and history absorbedÃ¢â¬ (Zemke et al., 2000, p.39). This generation were loyal and patriotic (Smith, 2011). People of this generation were unlikely to make complaints regarding conditions in which they sense uncomfortable (Zemke et al., 2000). 2.4.2Silent Generation (1920s Ã¢â¬â 1945s) The Silent Generation valued family and patriotism. They had a parent remaining at home to look after the offspring, favoured dependability, and remained with one company over time (Allen, 2004). They were brought up in serious intervals when everybody were obliged to work. They were conventional and working hard as they hated getting into debts. They considered that by entire hard work, they could achieve success (Codrington, 2008). 2.4.3Baby Boomers (1946s Ã¢â¬â 1960s) Baby boomers have been identified as being good at relationships. They respected others rights and did not find mistakes on others (Rath, 1999 and Zemke et al., 2000). Baby Boomers Ã¢â¬Å"may not agree with stands and opinions of every part of the cohort group or exhibit the same behaviour in the same situations, but they do, in their hearts, understand one anotherÃ¢â¬ (Zemke et al., 2000, p.72). They are individuals who work to earn their living and willing to sacrifice to attain success (Kerstein, 2014). They like adventure and tend to take risks. They are the primary generation to realise lifetime unemployment no longer exist, so job security means nothing to them, but they consider job satisfaction. They are the first generation to divorce in a large extent and at a younger age than the prior generations (Soroptimist, 2010). 2.4.4Generation X (1960s Ã¢â¬â 1989s) The generation X raised up undergoing an era of crises. Generation x is often considered as the Ã¢â¬Å"lost or overlooked generationÃ¢â¬ (Ware et al., 2007, p.59). They were the first offspring in the olden times that mothers could take pills not to have. Throughout the turbulent era of the 1970s, majority of the generation X grew up (Smith, 2011). They work to have a life not live to work, they struggle to have balance in their lives. They are spiritual explorers who have faith in supernatural (Codrington, 2008). They are independent and are determined to be responsible and in control. They focus on their goals and solve problems (Soroptimist, 2010). 2.4.5Generation Y (1989s Ã¢â¬â 2000s) Generation Y are spoilt by computers and intense technological advances. One of the foremost features of this generation is their relaxation with technology and being good at it (Kersten, 2002 and Niemiec, 2000). They are the first generation to grow up with internet and they are dependent on technology (Soroptimist, 2010). They are born with a micro-chip in the mouth instead of a golden or silver spoon. This generation considers that because of technology, task can be done everywhere (Smith, 2011). They are self-confident and egotistical as well (Codrington, 2008). A majority of generation Y were familiar with Ã¢â¬Å"divorce, drugs, sex, AIDS, gangs and gunsÃ¢â¬ (Zemke et. al., 2000, p.136). This generation committed to work in group for development and this has also been an indicative of their workplace conducts (Zemke et al., 2000). 2.5.The Notion of Generation Gap Generation gap has been considered as an unavoidable obstacle for the communications between the young and the old ones. These conflicts are normally arise as a result of urbanization, industrial development and family mobility (Bengtson and Achenbaum, 1993). The physical separation of the youngsters and the elders has led to a lack of consistent intergenerational connection and a rise in misperceptions and misunderstanding between the young and old generation (Newman, 1997). Becker (2000) stated that Ã¢â¬Å"distinct generations emerge as a result of the effects of discontinuous macro-social change on individual behaviour during the formative period of the life course. As soon as a new generation has developed, the development of its members before and after the formative period can be studied together with research on institutions related to the new generationÃ¢â¬ (p. 117). Mead (1970) stressed on the fact that, Ã¢â¬Å"Adults today know more about change than any previous generations. So we are set apart both from earlier generations and from the young who have rejected the past and all that their elders are making of the presentÃ¢â¬ (p. 79). Gutman (1985) contended that in the modern society Ã¢â¬Å"the present younger generation had been socialized into believing that Ã¢â¬Ëyoung is beautiful, old is uglyÃ¢â¬â¢ in retaliation to if Ã¢â¬Ëthe young knew and the old couldÃ¢â¬â¢ (Jefferys 1997, p. 82). Chow (2001) pointed that youngsters care and give attention to their parents as well as accepting and obeying their preferences in the form of showing respect them. He also suggested that, Ã¢â¬Å"children nowadays are not as keen to consult their parents as in the pastÃ¢â¬ in both side on marriage and job seeking. The social circumstance have evolved in such a way that they have often made the guidance of parents irrelevant and in appropriate (Chow, 2001). Children failed in fulfilling parents hopes on obedience when making their lifetime choices. Thus, this is one of the key issues in the reoccurrence of the Ã¢â¬Ëgeneration gapÃ¢â¬â¢. 2.6.The Causes of Generation Gap Generation gap has developed in society presently from numerous factors such as technological innovations, fashion, the evolution of the media, gifts, communication, attitudes, and sex. These aspects cause people to change in different ways that changes human opinion of what is right and generally acceptable, or to make a distinction between good and bad. These factors may cause discrepancies between generations, but they overall lead to positive development in society. 2.6.1Technological innovation At an early age, the younger generation starts making the use of technology and they never overwhelmed by it (Kelty, 2000). As the youth have grown up with technology and developed flexible skill, they are now considered as Ã¢â¬Ëdigital nativesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Courtois et al., 2009). The younger generation Ã¢â¬Ëknow what to doÃ¢â¬â¢ with different updated technologies as they make the use of them more often with the pre-existing technology (Facer et al., 2001). Older generation find it difficult to learn how to use technology unlike the younger generation (Kelty, 2000). They have the feeling of sore when there are advancement in technology. Throughout the previous three eras, the degree and speed of technological advancement has brought new interest in generational differences (Clark. 2009 and Livingstone, 2003). 2.6.2.Television One of the most important creations that has influenced the younger generation is the Television. Nowadays, television is superb compared to the television that the older generation. The television that the older generation remembers is dissimilar, it contained fewer channels and were available mostly in black and white and it was much smaller (Neff, 2011). Because of these changes, a big generation gap has developed concerning entertainment and the ethics resulted from it. Televisions turned to be more predominant in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s bedrooms (Jordan et al., 2010). Video game strategies are no more restricted to comforts that assign to televisions as it was long ago, however they are now accessible in the form of handheld devices as cellular phones (Vaterlaus, 2012). The multi-uses of television have widen the gap between the generations. The T.V remote control has become too complex for the old person who used to on/off button. The old may not necessarily be uneducated but they ar e not a tech-savvy as their children and grand-children. The same goes for the other gadgets such as video games, smart phones, iPad and iPhone. 2.6.3.Internet The Internet has had the major influence of widening the generation gap. It is the foremost persuasive technological innovation in the world nowadays with its multiple uses (Neff, 2011). The technology used to reach the internet has also advanced. The private desktop computer transformed into the laptops, and tablets. The internet can be currently reached on strategies as small as iPods and cell phones anytime and anywhere. Cell phones that permit internet access are referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"SmartphonesÃ¢â¬ (Vaterlaus, 2012). A technology revolution has been produced by the internet in the younger generation. Internet is used by the younger generation every day and it also permit children to develop a sense of freedom. These changes in ethics have been prominent as main differences between generations (Neff, 2011). Consequently, these technological inventions lead to a rise in the width of the generation gap in the world nowadays. The internet is currently used Ã¢â¬Å"to play video games, view movies, watch television shows, and download musicÃ¢â¬ (Jones, 2009). Juveniles who make use of the internet are no more restricted to view media, however they may communicate informally with others across the globe (Courtois, Mechant, De Marez and Verleye, 2009). Email, social-networking, chat rooms, and video chat permit communication to be immediate and even face-to-face (Jones, 2009). 2.6.4.Evolution of the Media Changes in media is another feature that causes generation gap to develop. Music, due to the increasing in technology is changing fast and new melodies are continuously released. The primary foremost apparent change among the two generations is the introduction of CD and MP3 player. Older generations grew up with records and record players. Music was not something that was freely accessible. Nowadays children have the facility of downloading songs and within minutes can listen to it in the earphones anywhere they want. This definitely ease causes the generation gap to widen. Not only have the types of melodies changed but the forms of genres also. For the older generation, the melodies of nowadays are basically noise for them, there are lack of beat and softer songs of the historical. People are obsessed on the tune of their early life, the tastes keep on varying and it is inevitable and cant be stopped. The two generations will certainly disagree on what is noble music. Because of t his, a generation gap is unavoidable. With the on-going changes in art and music, the gap will only continue to widen (Neff, 2011). 2.6.5.Fashion The way youngsters dress and appear are some of the most apparent, yet main factors in widening the generation gap. Appearances frequently reveal how one feels and their way of behaving. When the older generation was younger, they were more traditional, and it was revealed in their way of dressing. They dressed in a manner that was generally suitable at that time. The advancement of outfit displays a deliberate change from a traditional to liberal attitude. The film star heartened a movement into liberal dressing that certainly helps widening the existing generation gap. This particular change identifies a fashion choice that usually the young embrace and the old deprecate. This was the final step into varying the standards of dress. Womens evolution into freedom permitted for changes in the societal approval of this revealing show. As these values have transformed, the generation gap has only grown (Neff, 2011). 2.6.6.Attitudes The two generations adopted different attitudes. Most parents accept a straight forward expression and do not display their emotional state while interacting with their offspring. Moreover, they yell at their children more often or even give them physical punishment. These are due to the traditional practice. On the contrary, children dislike to obey their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ instructions as they consider that there are no reasons to support why parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions are correct. Furthermore, youngsters do not want their parents to treat them as little kids. They believe that they are grown-ups and they want to be free from parentÃ¢â¬â¢s control and refuse their guidelines. This helps them to achieve more self-esteem. Overall, both parents and their children do not perceive things from the same perspectives. As a result, misinterpretation is a great cause for the formation of generation gap (Kwok, 2010). 2.6.7.Communication The generation gap is considered to be one of the greatest communication failure (Aliampi, 1969). There is lack of time for communication. A majority of the parents spend less time to communicate with and listen to their children. Parents are unable to balance their time between work and family due to work overload. On the other hand, children are not sharing their day to day activities with their parents (Kwok. 2010). Social communication is moving with the fast paced nature of technological improvement (Vaterlaus, 2012). Communication channels offered by the internet are developing rapidly. Cell phone features comprise of speaking and texting which have convert into a consistent means of social communication for adolescents (Jones, 2009). Cell phone communication has become a family affair (Vaterlaus, 2012). There are less face to face conversation between parents and children, thus this causes the gap to widen. 2.6.8.Sex Sex has always been an issue on which the generations vary intensely. There are different conceptions of sex between the two generations. The way they think how to conceive are unlike. For the older generation, sex is a taboo. The young should not talk about sex and they cannot fall in love and have sex before marriage, punishment was very severe long ago. Marriage was being broken in the past because of virginity. On the contrary, for the younger generation sex is a normal activity. Sex before marriage is no more a sin for the young. This is shocking for the older generation. Teenage pregnancy was very rare before and now because of no sexual education, sex is reaching the youngsters. There is a big gap between the two generations. That gap has narrowed, but not all the time because younger generation have become more and more permissive (Smith, 2004). 2.6.9.Gifts Gifts play a key role in widening the gap between older and younger generation. The older generation were used to the custom of giving monetary gifts to the young (Nguyen, 2008). But today there is a big gap, gifts should be offered according to the demand of the young, they prefer gadgets. Younger generations of nowadays expect IPhone, IPad, mobile phones and laptops (Waterlow, 2012). When older generations are unable to accomplish the desires of the young, they have a sense of unfulfilment because the gift is not according to the social norm. The difference in utility value of a gift is enormous. The older generationÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of utility is quite opposed to the young. The older generation views utility of gift in terms of time associated to solidity and absolutism. The young has been brought up to consider gifts as something which are passing fads. 2.7.Summary This chapter has dealt with the idea of generation gap which is a universal phenomenon existing since time immemorial. Each period of human history has witness the causes of generation gap and tried to explain today we are perhaps most up to bring a clear explanation and have a better understanding about Generation Gap.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Avalanches are just one of many natural disasters that kill people every year. The difference to Alaskans is that this disaster hits a little closer to home than most. The fear of hurricane and tornado are not existent in my region, and even earthquakes are seen more as a little shake then any threat. Physics plays a huge part in avalanches, thermodynamics, statics, and gravity are just a few elements of these disasters. The map above confirms that Alaska is at high risk for avalanche. As a result of this threat, learning about avalanches is a necessity when recreating or working in high avalanche areas. In order to better understand Avalanches, it makes sense to first learn about what avalanches are compose of, snow. Snow forms when atmospheric conditions cause water vapor to condense. However, it is obvious that all snow doesn't have the same structure. The density of fresh snowfall is dependent on both the kind of snow crystal and the air temperature. In cold, calm conditions the snowfall is the lightest. While in warmer climates, where graupel and needle crystals fall, the snowfall is the densest. When looking at a cross section of snowfall it is often evident what weather conditions formed the cross section. This is due to the different densities and structures of the snow layers. The bonds between snow layers are large factor in avalanches. If there is a weak bond between layers, the top layer can easily slide off the bottom layer. When this happens it is called a slab avalanche. Other layering characteristic will create other avalanches and hazards, such as ice avalanches and cornices. Whenever traveling in avalanche country it is important to be aware of your environment. Steep gullies and wide plains are perfect paths for avalanches. Ridges and unconformities in the terrain may help to slow down an avalanches speed. The severity of an avalanche is directly related to the terrain in which it happens. One of the most important factors to consider is the slope of the mountain or hill. Most avalanches occur between 20 and 50 degrees like the diagram above shows. However, the largest avalanches occur between 30 and 45 degrees, and the areas which have the greatest frequency of avalanches are between 35 and 40 degrees.
Friday, July 19, 2019
According to Merrion-Webster Inc. Dictionary, a doppelgÃ ¤nger is a double, an often ghostly or evil counterpart to a character. It comes from the German language, doppel- double + -gÃ ¤nger goer. It might be asked, 'What does a doppelgÃ ¤nger have to do with a paper on Joseph Conrad?'; The answer is a lot, especially if Conrad's 'The Secret Sharer'; is being discussed. In this short story, the two characters, the captain and Leggatt, share many similarities, as well as differences. When comparing the similarities and differences, they can be used to show the duality between the captain and Leggatt. Conrad used Leggatt as a doppelgÃ ¤nger to help the captain come terms with himself. In 1880, Conrad was part of the crew of the Cutty Sark. On this ship, Sidney Smith killed a black man, John Francis. The captain of the Cutty Sark secretly helped Smith to an American ship, the Colorado. Four days later, Smith committed suicide (Daleski 171). Smith had not wanted to be tried for his murder. This experience is particularly interesting when one compares it to Conrad's short story, 'The Secret Sharer';. Conrad directly used his knowledge of the occurrences aboard the Cutty Sark for that particular story. 'The Secret Sharer'; is a psychological masterpiece that dramatizes the act of sympathetic identification with an outlaw. Also, it deals with the achievement of self-mastery when the secret self is exorcised (Graver 150). In it, the character Leggatt is the embodiment of the captain's personality; yet, he is not any higher or lower than the captain. He's only different. He is one side, to a double-sided coin. In the story, the captain of a ship discovers a man named Leggatt. Leggatt had committed murder on the Sephora, on which he was first mate. Not wanting to face a trial, he escaped. The captain and Leggatt form an immediate bond (Conrad 702). Comparing the two, they are both of the same stature, same background. The captain even refers to Leggatt as his 'double';, 'other self';, or 'secret sharer'; almost 40 times (Graver 152). Conrad specifically implies that Leggatt is a doppelgÃ ¤nger, or the captain's double. They do, however, possess striking differences in their personalities. Where the captain is apprehensive and uncertain of himself, Leggatt is full of calmness and self-confidence (Conrad 702). In fact, part of the attractiveness that Leggatt has, is based on his obvious self-possession (Graver 152). Yet, it must be remembered that Leggatt killed a man.
ATVÃ¢â¬â¢s: A ManÃ¢â¬â¢s World Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Propaganda is everywhere. It is on the television, in the newspapers, magazines, and the internet. Everywhere you turn, itÃ¢â¬â¢s there. The problem with this is that people merely dismiss it as truth. When people see propaganda, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Å"seeÃ¢â¬ propaganda; they see a nice new sport-utility vehicle with a Ã¢â¬Å"powerful engineÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"cool rimsÃ¢â¬ . When an advertisement uses propaganda, itÃ¢â¬â¢s over-looked and the reader is caught in the trap laid out for him. People see everything the designer of that particular advertisement wants them to see. The advertisements selected and interpreted for this assignment are directed towards maleÃ¢â¬â¢s ages 18 to 27 in the United States. They use three different forms of propaganda to send the same message; Ã¢â¬Å"Buy this, itÃ¢â¬â¢s fun and your friends will be so jealous.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first advertisement, for the Arctic Cat 650, uses the glittering generalities technique to lure people into buying their product. It depicts a young man riding their product, a massive ATV, with a helmet and ATV eyewear. He is covered in mud from head to toe and seems to carry this Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m better than you are.Ã¢â¬ persona. It seams to me that simply because he is riding this particular product, he feels as though he is better than any who is not riding the same ATV. The glittering generalities technique uses specific words to make us believe that their product is better for us or will make us happier than their competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ similar product. This advertisement uses many Ã¢â¬Å"glitteringÃ¢â¬ words and phrases to make their product more appealing to those targeted. Some of these phrases include Ã¢â¬Ënew and improved for 2005Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëthe amazingÃ¢â¬â¢. These glittering generalizations could be said about any all-terrain vehic le. The problem with generalizations is that there is no hard evidence to back it up, they simply state what the designer wants them to state. However, the normal reader of this advertisement would never question the truth of the words stated therein. Other generalizations in this advertisement include, Ã¢â¬Ëthe most powerful ATV on the marketÃ¢â¬â¢. How can they claim this without giving proof of their claim? Simple, they are using propaganda to stretch the truth. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another advertisement uses testimonials or endorsements to sell their product, the Kawasaki Brute Force. This ad shows their product ahead of the pack in an actual race. He is just crossing the finish line as the picture was taken.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Isaid,get out ,Ã¢â¬ Meredith repeated to Caroline, still quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"You've said things that never should have been said in any civilized place. This happens to be Stefan's place Ã¢â¬â and, yes, it's hisplace to order you out, too. I'm doing it for him, though, because he never would ask a girl Ã¢â¬â and a former girlfriend, I might add Ã¢â¬â to get the hell out of his room.Ã¢â¬ Matt cleared his throat. He'd stepped back into a corner and everyone had forgotten about him. Now he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Caroline, I've known you way too long to be formal, and Meredith's right. You want to say the kind of things you've been saying about Elena, you do it somewhere faraway from Elena. But, look, there's one thing I know. No matter what Elena did when she was Ã¢â¬â was downhere beforeÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â his voice dropped a little in wonder, and Bonnie knew that he meant, when Elena was here on Earth before Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"she's as close to an angelnow as you can get. Right now she'sÃ¢â¬ ¦she'sÃ¢â¬ ¦completelyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He hesitated, stumbling for the right words. Ã¢â¬Å"Pure,Ã¢â¬ Meredith said easily, filling in the blank for him. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah,Ã¢â¬ Matt agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, pure. Everything she does is pure. And it's not like any of your nasty words could stain her, anyway, but the rest of us just don't like hearing you try.Ã¢â¬ There was a low Ã¢â¬Å"Thank youÃ¢â¬ from Stefan. Ã¢â¬Å"I was already going,Ã¢â¬ Caroline said, now through her teeth. Ã¢â¬Å"And don't youdare preach atme about purity ! Here, with all this going on! You probably just want to watch it going on yourself, two girls kissing. You probably Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Enough.Ã¢â¬ Stefan said it almost expressionlessly, but Caroline was swept off her feet, up and out of the door, and deposited there by invisible hands. Her purse trailed after her. Then the door quietly shut. Fine hairs rose on the back of Bonnie's neck. This was Power, in such amounts that her psychic senses were stunned and temporarily paralyzed. Moving Caroline Ã¢â¬â and she wasn't a small girl Ã¢â¬â now that took Power . Maybe Stefan had changed just as much as Elena had. Bonnie glanced at Elena, whose pool of serenity was rippling because of Caroline. Might as well take her mind off it, and maybe make herself worthy of athank you from Stefan, Bonnie thought. She tapped Elena's knee, and when Elena turned, Bonnie kissed her. Elena broke the kiss very quickly, as if afraid to set off some holocaust again. But Bonnie saw at once what Meredith had said about it not being sexual. It wasÃ¢â¬ ¦more like being examined by someone who used all her senses to the fullest. When Elena moved away from Bonnie she beamed at her just as she had at Meredith, all the distress washed away by Ã¢â¬â yes, thepurity of the kiss. And Bonnie felt as if some of Elena's tranquility had soaked into her. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦should have known better than to bring Caroline,Ã¢â¬ Matt was saying to Stefan. Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry about butting in. But Iknow Caroline, and she could have gone on ranting for another half hour, never actually leaving.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan took care of that,Ã¢â¬ Meredith said, Ã¢â¬Å"or was that Elena, too?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It was me,Ã¢â¬ Stefan said. Ã¢â¬Å"Matt had it right: she could keep on talking forever without actually leaving. And I'd just as lief nobody run Elena down like that in my hearing.Ã¢â¬ Why are they talking about those things? Bonnie wondered. Of all people, Meredith and Stefan were least inclined to chatter, but here they were, saying things that didn't really need to be said. Then she realized it was for Matt, who was moving slowly but with determination toward Elena. Bonnie got up as quickly and as lithely as if she could fly, and managed to pass Matt without looking at him. And then she was joining Meredith and Stefan in small talk Ã¢â¬â well, medium-small talk Ã¢â¬â about what had just happened. Caroline made a bad enemy, everyone agreed, and nothing seemed to teach her that her schemes against Elena always backfired. Bonnie would bet that she was hatching a new scheme right now against all of them. Ã¢â¬Å"She feels lonely all the time,Ã¢â¬ Stefan said, as if trying to make excuses for her. Ã¢â¬Å"She wants to be accepted, by anyone, on any terms Ã¢â¬â but she feels Ã¢â¬â apart. As if nobody who really got to know her would trust her.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She's defensive,Ã¢â¬ Meredith agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"But you'd think she'd showsome gratitude. After all, we did rescue her and save her life just over a week ago.Ã¢â¬ There was more to it than that, Bonnie thought. Her intuition was trying to tell her something Ã¢â¬â something about what might have happenedbefore they had been able to rescue Caroline Ã¢â¬â but she was so angry on Elena's behalf that she ignored it. Ã¢â¬Å"Why should anybody trust her?Ã¢â¬ she said to Stefan. She sneaked a peek behind her. Elena was definitely going to know Matt anywhere, and Matt looked as if he were fainting. Ã¢â¬Å"Caroline's beautiful, sure, but that's it. She never has a good word to say about anybody. She plays games all the time Ã¢â¬â and Ã¢â¬â and Iknow we used to do some of that, tooÃ¢â¬ ¦but hers are always meant to make other people look bad. Sure, she can take mostguys inÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â a sudden anxiety swept over her, and she spoke more loudly to try to push it away Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"but if you're a girl she's just a pair of long legs and big Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Bonnie stopped because Meredith and Stefan had frozen, with identicalOh-God-not-again expressions on their faces. Ã¢â¬Å"And she also has very decent hearing,Ã¢â¬ said a shaking, threatening voice from somewhere behind Bonnie. Bonnie's heart leaped into her throat. That was what you got for ignoring premonitions. Ã¢â¬Å"Caroline Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ Meredith and Stefan were both trying for damage control, but it was too late. Caroline stalked in on her long legs as if she didn't want her feet to touch Stefan's floorboards. Oddly, though, she was carrying her high heels. Ã¢â¬Å"I came back in to get my sunglasses,Ã¢â¬ she said, still in that trembling voice. Ã¢â¬Å"And I heard enough to know now what my so-called ;;friends' think of me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, you didn't,Ã¢â¬ Meredith said, as rapidly eloquent as Bonnie was stunned mute. Ã¢â¬Å"You heard some very angry people letting off steam after you'd just insulted them.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Besides,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie said, suddenly able to speak again, Ã¢â¬Å"admit it, Caroline Ã¢â¬â youhoped you'd hear something. That's why you took off your shoes. You were right behind the door, listening, weren't you?Ã¢â¬ Stefan shut his eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"This is my fault. I should have Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"No, you shouldn't,Ã¢â¬ Meredith said to him, and to Caroline she added, Ã¢â¬Å"And if you can tell me one word we said that isn't true, or was exaggerated Ã¢â¬â except maybe for what Bonnie said, and Bonnie isÃ¢â¬ ¦just being Bonnie. Anyway, if you can point to one word of what the rest of us said that isn't true,I'll beg your pardon.Ã¢â¬ Caroline wasn't listening. Caroline was twitching. She had a facial tic, and her lovely face was convulsed, dark red, with fury. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, you'regoing to beg my pardon all right,Ã¢â¬ she said, wheeling to point her long-nailed forefinger at each of them. Ã¢â¬Å"You'reall going to be sorry. And if you try that Ã¢â¬â that witchcraft-vampire type thing on me again,Ã¢â¬ she said to Stefan, Ã¢â¬Å"I have friends Ã¢â¬â real friends Ã¢â¬â who'd like to know about it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Caroline, just this afternoon you signed a contract Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, who gives a damn?Ã¢â¬ Stefan stood up. It was dark now inside the small room with its dusty window, and Stefan's shadow was thrown before him by the bedside lamp. Bonnie looked at it and then poked Meredith, as the hairs tingled on her arms and neck. The shadow was surprisingly dark and surprisingly tall. Caroline's shadow was weak, transparent, and short Ã¢â¬â an imitation shadow beside Stefan's very real one. The thunderstorm feeling was back. Bonnie was shaking now; trying not to, but unable to stop the shivering that had come on as if she had been thrown into icy water. It was a cold that had gotten directly into her bones and was ripping layer after layer of heat off them like some greedy giant, and now she was beginning to shakehardÃ¢â¬ ¦. Something was happening to Caroline in the darkness Ã¢â¬â something was coming from her Ã¢â¬â or comingfor her Ã¢â¬â or maybe both. In any case, it was all around her now, and all around Bonnie, too, and the tension was so thick that Bonnie felt choked, her heart pounding. Beside her, Meredith Ã¢â¬â practical, level-headed Meredith Ã¢â¬â stirred uneasily. Ã¢â¬Å"What Ã¢â¬â ?Ã¢â¬ Meredith began in a whisper. Suddenly, as if it had all been exquisitely choreographed by the things in the dark Ã¢â¬â the door to Stefan's room slammed shutÃ¢â¬ ¦the lamp, an ordinary electric one, went offÃ¢â¬ ¦the ancient rolled-up shutter over the window came rattling down, dropping the room into sudden and complete darkness. And Caroline screamed. It was an awful sound Ã¢â¬â raw, as if it had been stripped like meat from Caroline's backbone and yanked out of her throat. Bonnie screamed, too. She couldn't help it, although her scream sounded too faint and too breathless, like an echo, not the coloratura job that Caroline had done. Thank God that at least Caroline wasn't screaming any longer. Bonnie was able to stop the new scream building in her own throat, even though her shaking was worse than ever. Meredith had an arm around her tightly, but then, as the darkness and the silence went on and Bonnie's shaking only continued, Meredith got up and heartlessly passed her to Matt, who seemed astonished and embarrassed, but tried awkwardly to hold her. Ã¢â¬Å"It's not as dark once your eyes get used to it,Ã¢â¬ he said. His voice was creaky, as if he needed a drink of water. But it was the best thing that he could have said, because of all things in the world to fear, Bonnie was most afraid of the dark. There werethings in it, things that only she saw. She managed, despite the terrible shaking, to stand with his support Ã¢â¬â and then she gasped, and heard Matt gasp, too. Elena was glowing. Not only that, but the glow extended out behind her and far to either side of her in a pair of what were beautifully defined, and undeniablythereÃ¢â¬ ¦wings. Ã¢â¬Å"She h-has wings,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie whispered, the stutter caused by her shaking rather than by awe or fear. Matt was clinging toher now, like a child; he obviously couldn't answer. The wings moved with Elena's breathing. She was sitting on thin air, steady now, one hand held out with her fingers all spread in a gesture of denial. Elena spoke. It wasn't any language that Bonnie had heard before; she doubted it was any language people on Earth used. The words were sharp, thin-edged, like the splintering of myriad shards of crystal that had fallen from somewhere very high and very far away. The shape of the wordsalmost made sense in Bonnie's head as her own psychic abilities were sparked by Elena's tremendous Power. It was a Power that stood tall against the darkness and now was sweeping it asideÃ¢â¬ ¦making the things in the dark scamper away before it, their claws scritching in all directions. Ice-sharp words followed them all the way, dismissive nowÃ¢â¬ ¦. And ElenaÃ¢â¬ ¦Elena was as heartbreakingly beautiful as when she'd been a vampire, and seemed almost as pale as one. But Caroline was shouting, too. She was using powerful words of Black Magic, and to Bonnie it was as if the shadows of all sorts of dark and horrible things were coming from her mouth: lizards and snakes and many-legged spiders. It was a duel, a face-off of magic. Only how had Caroline learned so much dark magic? She wasn't even a witch by lineage, like Bonnie. Outside Stefan's room, surrounding it, was a strange sound, almost like a helicopter. WhipwhipwhipwhipwhipÃ¢â¬ ¦ It terrified Bonnie. But she had to do something. She was Celtic by heritage and psychic because she couldn't avoid it, and she had to help Elena. Slowly, as if making her way against gale-force winds, Bonnie stumbled to put her hand on Elena's hand, to offer Elena her power. When Elena clasped hands with her, Bonnie realized that Meredith was on her other side. The light grew. The scrabbling lizard things ran from it, screaming and tearing at each other to get away. The next thing Bonnie knew, Elena had slumped over. The wings were gone. The dark scrabbling things were gone, too. Elena had sent them away, using tremendous amounts of energy to overwhelm them with White Power. Ã¢â¬Å"She'll fall,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie whispered, looking at Stefan. Ã¢â¬Å"She's been using magic so strong Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Just then, as Stefan started to turn to Elena, several things happened very fast, as if the room was caught in the flashes of a strobe light. Flash. The window shade rolled back up, rattling furiously. Flash. The lamp went back on, revealing it was in Stefan's hands. He must have been trying to fix it. Flash. The door to Stefan's room opened slowly, creaking, as if to make up for slamming shut before. Flash. Caroline was now on the floor, on all fours, groveling, breathing hard. Elena had wonÃ¢â¬ ¦. Elena fell. Only inhumanly fast reflexes could have caught her, especially from across the room. But Stefan had tossed the lamp to Meredith and was across the distance faster than Bonnie's eyes could follow. Then he was holding Elena, encircling her protectively. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh,hell ,Ã¢â¬ said Caroline. Black trails of mascara ran down her face, making her look like something not quite human. She looked at Stefan with unconcealed hatred. He looked back soberly Ã¢â¬â no,sternly . Ã¢â¬Å"Don't call on Hell,Ã¢â¬ he said in a very low voice. Ã¢â¬Å"Not here. Not now. Because Hell might hear and call back.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"As if it already hadn't,Ã¢â¬ Caroline said, and in that moment, she was pitiful Ã¢â¬â broken and pathetic. As if she had started something she didn't know how to stop. Ã¢â¬Å"Caroline, what are you saying?Ã¢â¬ Stefan knelt. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you saying that you've already Ã¢â¬â made some bargain Ã¢â¬â ?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ouch,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie said, suddenly and involuntarily, shattering the ominous mood in Stefan's room. One of Caroline's broken nails had left a trail of blood on the floor. Caroline had knelt in it, too, making things pretty messy. Bonnie felt a sympathetic throb of pain in her own fingers until Caroline waved her bloody hand at Stefan. Then Bonnie's sympathy turned to nausea. Ã¢â¬Å"Want a lick?Ã¢â¬ she said. Her voice and face had changed entirely, and she wasn't even trying to hide it. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, come on, Stefan,Ã¢â¬ she went on mockingly, Ã¢â¬Å"youdo drink human blood these days, don't you? Human or Ã¢â¬â whatever she is, whatever she's become. You two fly like bats together now, do you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Caroline,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie whispered, Ã¢â¬Å"didn't yousee them? Her wings Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Just like a bat Ã¢â¬â or another vampire already. Stefan's made her Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I saw them too,Ã¢â¬ Matt said flatly, behind Bonnie. Ã¢â¬Å"They weren't bat wings.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Doesn't anybody have eyes?Ã¢â¬ Meredith said from where she stood by the lamp. Ã¢â¬Å"Look here.Ã¢â¬ She bent. When she stood again she was holding a long white feather. It shone in the light. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe she's a white crow, then,Ã¢â¬ Caroline said. Ã¢â¬Å"That would be appropriate. And I can't believe how you're all Ã¢â¬â all Ã¢â¬â fawning on her as if she were some sort of princess. Always everybody's little darling, aren't you, Elena?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Stop it,Ã¢â¬ Stefan said. Ã¢â¬Å"Everybody's, that's the key word,Ã¢â¬ Caroline spat. Ã¢â¬Å"Stop it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The way you were kissing people one after another.Ã¢â¬ She gave a theatrical shudder. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone seems to have forgotten, but that was more like Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Stop, Caroline.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thereal Elena.Ã¢â¬ Caroline's voice had become pretend-prissy, but she couldn't keep the venom out, Bonnie thought. Ã¢â¬Å"Because anyone who knows you knows what youreally were before Stefanblessed us with hisirresistible presence. You were Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Caroline, stop right there Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"A slut! That's all! Just a cheap, anybody'sslut !Ã¢â¬