Thursday, November 28, 2019
Supertramp Into the wild is more morbidly fascinating than anything else. It is a journey into the psyche of a young man who, with seemingly all of the advantages that late Twentieth Century America can arm one with, decides to disappear into the flotsam of the country playing the part of an enlightened hobo (he takes the moniker 'Supertramp' as a way to christen his new identity). When I read I this book I was infuriated with Chris McCandless. It is normal to want to create a reality where it is you versus them. Who wants to work forty plus hours a week for a boss who would just as soon fire you so that he or she could keep their indoor pool heated during the winter? Who would want that really? No one. But that is where discipline comes in. This is what Chris lacked..." I went on and on this tangent. And for the most part I believed it. I honestly felt that Chris was a coward and an egotist. Chris McClandiss is thought by some to be an idealistic reckless youth. First off all, Why, I asked, would Chris take photos of himself if he planned to rough it for the sake of roughing it? Are photos not for the benefit of others to shuffle through while nodding in amazement? "You really killed a moose and ate it? Wow!" I saw Chris as a poseur. Chris' death is tragic and there is considerable talk of the waste of potential due to a 'lack of respect for the power of mother nature.' Perhaps this is true (McNamee). Perhaps if Chris emerged from those woods, gaunt, weakened, and wise, he would write a great American novel that would touch the masses and remind us all of our connection to the land. Most likely Chris would leave the woods and write a book, as his expressed an intent to do, that would be published by a small press and read only by his close friends and family. Chris would continue his pattern of a few months in society followed by an exodus into the unknown. His amazing tales would be told over beers and a dishful of nuts but the rest of us would never know of Alex Supertramp. Chris died and that is what gives his story the emotion that makes a bestseller. And being a bestseller, we are here talking about it. And because we talk, some of us will learn. And that is the point, isn't it? Yes, it is safer to live by the rules our fathers and mothers laid down (a reader). Yes, it is wiser to wait until your body and mind are strong enough for a challenge until you drop yourself into it. But for some people, people like Chris; to live by the rules is a slow and painful death. Chris lived the life he loved and died for it. Second of all, McClandiss is thought by some to be an idealistic reckless youth. He seems to be searching for the truth and reality of his humanity, "to kill the false beast within." McClandiss's decisions are based on his revolt against the excessiveness of American Society. Others fulminated that he was a reckless idiots, a wacko, a narcissist who perished out of arrogance and stupidity- and was undeserving of the considerable media attention he received (Krakauer 3). He is a later version of what the Hippies attempted when they left middle class society to live off the land. McClandiss said that he hoped to, "fix all that was wrong with my life." When he is found frozen to death in an old bus no one is certain if his death was intentional or a mistake (Smith). A person like Chris McCandless who has everything in the world is still unsatisfied on what is around him. He has family, money and a great education that will soon be his great future but he thinks that everything related to wealth is sinful. Chris made a journey to search for the true meaning of life and escaped it pressures. He also tried to travel by using his instincts in life by living naturally without other's aide. Whereas he helped people suffering of hunger by donating all of his college money, he forgot to help himself. Chris called himself "Supertramp" which is ironic to the fact that he didn't survive nature's forces. Even though he died in his final destination, he finally realized that he fulfilled something, to have freedom
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Incomplete Pythagoras Essay essays Pythagoras: A Great Man (or A Great Myth) Pythagoras, my adopted philosopher, was a man of great stature, a man who had a cult of followers, a man who is believed to be a product of the school of Anaximander , a man whose beliefs lead to his exile from his communities home in Kroton , and a man who for all intents and purposes may have never existed. Pythagoras and those who followed him, often referred to in the world of philosophy as Pythagoreans, were prone to the belief that everything: the natural world, human beings, and their interactions among one another were the product of numbers. Now when I use the term numbers I use it the same terms that the Greeks solely used it, in the term of geometric figures or dimensions. Pythagoras was originally from Samos and traveled to Kroton and started a community that was both a religious cult and a scientific school. This school often was the object of jealousy and thus many of the accounts that we receive of Pythagoras are accounts that he was merely a myth, not an actual person. This is a fact that is highly debated in the intellectual world even to this day. Those who believe that he is man and not a myth are oftentimes skeptic about those who write about Pythagoras truly as myth. With those who are certain he is myth doubt the accounts of his followers that he was a true man. It is my belief that the fact that he is written about as both myth and man is no reason to believe he never truly existed. One does, however, have to understand that since he never truly wrote anything himself it is hard to know what doctrines of the Pythagoreans are the products of Pythagoras himself or those of the Pythagorean community. It was the Pythagorean belief that everything had a number and if one could understand all the formulas of the numbers one would be able to predict or know all things. This system of beliefs worked rather well when the Pythagoreans dealt with the notions of Astron...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
International Management - Essay Example Market uncertainties and product characteristics are equally important. Firms enter through the research and development process and then get a foothold in the country. In the face of competition firms even ignore the short-term losses when they find tremendous potential in investing. Hence, several variables need to be added to the existing model as resources have become readily available. Dunning sees an interrelationship between I and O type advantages in that internalisation helps a firm to acquire or increase those assets which give it an O type advantage. The essence of the eclectic approach is to consider the OLI type advantages together and in applying them to both international trade and production. This means that it is more of a synthesis of other approaches. Dunning calls his theory systemic because it relates to the way in which the firm coordinates its activities. Dunnings model attempts to integrate elements of micro and macro theory and to explain international trade and production within the same conceptual framework. It is centered on the notion that FDI is the most effective vehicle for serving foreign markets when the firm possesses the advantages under conditions of imperfect competition (Holsapple, Ozawa & Olienyk, 2006). DunningÃ¢â¬â¢s framework according to Brouthers and Hennart (2007) can be conceptualized as a tool that combines insights fro m resource-based (firm-specific), institutional (location) and transaction cost (internalization) theories. The approach is dynamic since the OLI advantages interact with one another. L advantages may create incentives to internalise and I advantages create further O advantages. The main doubt about Dunnings model is whether it is more than a mere taxonomy. The model is a helpful classification - but does it explain anything? DunningÃ¢â¬â¢s framework has not been found to be sufficient to arrive at a decision concerning the mode of entry in international markets. Additional
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Safety - Essay Example The first step I will consider as a safety professional is to review the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s past safety issues. By knowing the weak areas, I can easily identify the precise place to start implementing new safety measures. It is also important that I ensure direct access to the top manager in the manufacturing plant, since lack of management buy-in may make the safety initiatives not long lasting. I should also have access to every work area and department, and must question employees freely for the purpose of information gathering. Regular status report will be prepared so that I can update supervision on current safety proposals and identify areas that should be improved on (Pradeep 8). Record keeping and documentation will help me to give written evidence provided by the new safety program to show positive results and also to protect the firm incase of a safety inquiry or when a lawsuit is filed. I can also include consultants cite testing to determine employee preservation of safety in formation. According to Janicak, (182), a manufacturing plant needs some OSHA regulations applicable to it as not all the regulations apply. To determine the type of regulation, I will first consider the types of products that are being manufactured by this plant. For example, if the company deals with chemicals, then OSHA regulations dealing with chemicals will be applied, while if the plant does not deal with chemicals, then different regulations will be followed. By clearly reading the regulations from the OSHA website, I will use my knowledge that every type of manufacturing plant has some regulations to follow and thus will reform the old ones and update the newest on a regular basis. To be an effective advocate for safety in an organization, I need to stay firmly in charge by letting all the employees know that I am concerned and doing all I can to create a safety environment (Gail 30). Taking my time as their representative by being close to them and being inquisitive on how they are doing will demonstrate good safety leadership. A good safety leader also shares information with the employees immediately they are available and encourage employees to talk freely about their painful experience in the workplace. Exercise 2 Voluntary Protection Programs OSHA created a VPP to recognize industrial firms that show exemplary health and safety programs, exceeding the least requirement put up by the Code of Federal Regulations. As a safety professional, I would advocate that our manufacturing plant strive to be recognized as a VPP star company. This is for the reason that the firm has a responsibility to train workers, watch their health status, and correct issues related to safety. This will ensure that the workplace and the environment are free of any possible risks or require engineering directions to be implemented, that is, use of protective equipment to limit existing and known hazards. It is also important for continual improvement safety and health traini ng and recognizes excellence in the programs offered by the company. Advantages of a company being involved in VPP Some of the advantages of the company being involved in VPP include: reduced employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation cost, improved motivation for employees to work safely, resulting in better productivity and quality, recognition in the industry and community, and improvement in existing safety and health programs ( Manuele 235). Disadvantages OSHA has set compliance criteria that
Monday, November 18, 2019
W 6 OIS - Essay Example Unfortunately though, there are some challenges that easily come up in their bid to doing so. Among other things, Wager, Lee and Glaser (2009) identifies the absence of an evaluation process, health information technology (HIT) barriers and an expected pass rate of 100% as three core challenges to MU. For most of these challenges organizations are faced with the need to improvising ways of overcoming them through the use of an in-house risk mitigation program. Once the challenges are overcome and the use of MU is set to roll, there are several advantages that become achieved as a result. In the first place MU, comes to address the problem of medication errors, which can also be attributed to issues such as fatigue on the part of health practitioners, mechanization of processes and human errors (Lee and Corey, 2002). As the issue of medication error through the institutionalization of HER is achieved, the credibility of organizations goes up. What is more, efficiency of health organizations becomes improved since MU ensures that much productivity is guaranteed within a very short time frame (Wager, Lee and Glaser, 2009). Mentzer et al (2011) also noted the fact that MU engages patients and families and thus making a shared responsibility a very useful parameter for achieving results within the healthcare
Friday, November 15, 2019
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hybrid Vehicles Engineering Essay Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) entered US market in the end of 20th century and during the last years have been highly developed and they succeeded entering the European market.  The purpose of this report is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of HEV compared to conventional and electric vehicles. Hybrid Electric Vehicles Overview Hybrids are a combination of conventional and electric vehicles. They can have an internal combustion engine, a fuel cell or a gas turbine as power source, an electric motor, a regenerative braking system, a power inverter/motor controller, hybrid system controls and a battery.    There are four types of HEV: series, parallel, series-parallel and complex hybrid.  In this report hybrid vehicles are considered to be the HEVs with an ICE, the conventional vehicles are the typical internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) and electric vehicles are considered to be the battery electric vehicles (BEV). Advantages and Disadvantages of HEV HEV have many advantages in comparison to ICEV and BEV but as they are still an emerging technology they do have some disadvantages. This report will present the advantages and disadvantages of HEV in three areas: cost, efficiency and performance, and environmental impacts. 267 Cost Typically HEVs have a higher retail price than CV but a lower one than EV. A typical retail price of a Honda Civic (ICEV) in USA is $18,655, of a Toyota Prius (HEV) $22,000 and of a Chevrolet Volt (EV) $40,000. (Mitchell) It is estimated that a consumer needs about 8 years to breakeven the bought of a HEV instead of a CV and 39 years to breakeven buying a BEV instead of a HEV and that gives ICEV advantages over the alternative technologies.  The Total Ownership Cost (TOC) over a 10-year period (life-time period that includes maintenance and operation costs) gives HEV an advantage. For instance, a parallel HEV has the lowest net present value, about $69,000, an ICEV about $71,000 and a BEV about $80,000, under certain financial parameters.  Usually HEV have higher maintenance and insurance costs and higher batter costs per kilometer but they have much lower fuel costs.  The main reason that HEV has an advantage against BEV is the high cost of battery for the latter.    A typical ICEV has a fuel consumption of 4.2 l/100km and 6.2 l/100km for diesel and gasoline respectively, a HEV 3.8 l/100km and a BEV 0 l/100km. The average fuel prices for EU are 1.35 and 1.48 Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ for diesel and gasoline respectively and the average EU electricity price is 0.16 Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬/kWh.  During the life-cycle a conventional car will change the battery once for 100$, a HEV for $1020 and a BEV needs to change it tw ice with total cost of $30,800.  255 Efficiency and Performance In European Union (EU 27) transportation sector consumes 37% of total energy, where 85% of this comes from road transportation.  In general the HEV has an advantage over ICEV in all stages of energy usage: during energy generation (wheel-to-tank, WTT), during operation (tank-to-wheel, TTW) and on a full fuel cycle (well-to-wheels, WTW). On the other hand, BEV has an advantage over HEV in TTW and WTW stages but uses more energy in WTT stage for the electricity generation. A typical HEV has lower specific fuel consumption than an ICEV and higher than a BEV. A HEV has lower energy annual cost than an ICEV but higher than a BEV. Also, HEVs have bigger driving range than ICEVs and BEVs.    Regarding the energy conversion efficiency (energy consumed at the wheels divided by total energy supplied to the vehicle) a HEV has higher conversion efficiency than an ICEV but lower than a BEV.   But, in a well-to-wheel analysis a HEV could have higher conversion efficiency from B EV too depending on the electricity generation source. From a consumers point of view an HEV has lower top speed than an ICEV but bigger than a BEV. Moreover, a HEV can have higher acceleration than both ICEV and BEV.  Typical values of the efficiency and performance of vehicles with different technologies are presented in Table . The main reasons for the advantages of HEV in comparison to the ICEV are the lower engine size, the use of regenerative braking energy and the ability to operate only in battery when is available.    260 Table Efficiencies and performance of each vehicle technology. (Source: ref. ) Conventional Hybrid BEV Reference car VW Golf 1.4TSI Toyota Prius III Nissan Leaf Top speed (km) 200 180 161 Acceleration (s) 9.5 10.4 7 Range (km) 888 1152 117-175 Net Power (kW) 90 100 80 Effective Storage capacity (kWh usable) 105 143.1 22.1 Average conversion efficiency (%) 21 35 92 Environmental Impacts Transportation sector accounts for about 19% of the total CO2 emissions and road transportation is responsible for 94% of this amount. HEV have an advantage over ICEV as they produce lower CO2 emissions, which is the main greenhouse gas, during the driving stage (TTW). As far as BEVs are concerned, they have zero emissions in TTW stage.   Regarding the total GHG emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6) and the total air pollutants emissions (AP: CO, NOx, SOx and VOCs) HEVs have lower GHG emissions in all stages (WTT, TTW and WTW) than ICEVs, but regarding BEVs the emissions produced in WTT and WTW stages are depending on electricity generation mixture and that could lead to high variations.   At the production stages of a vehicle, a HEV has higher GHG and AP emissions than an ICEV but lower than a BEV one. That is due to the high environmental impact for the production of batteries. At the fuel utilization stage and during the total environmental impact (assuming 10 years lifecycle and that a car drives 241,350km) a HEV has lower GHG and AP emissions than an ICEV. For the BEV emissions there are variations because of the electricity production. Under three scenarios for electricity generation: (1) electricity from renewable energy sources (RES) and nuclear energy; (2) 50% from RES and 50% from natural gas with efficie ncy of 40%; (3) all electricity from natural gas with 40% efficiency a BEV will have lower emissions at both, fuel utilization and total environmental impact, than a HEV.   Typical values of GHG and AP emissions for each type of vehicle are presented in Table . Table Emissions for each type of vehicle during production and utilization stages (source ref. ) Vehicle Production (kg) Production of NiMeH battery (emissions per life of vehicle, kg) Fuel utilization usage (kg per 100km of vehicle travel) Total environment impact (kg per 100km of vehicle travel) GHG AP GHG AP GHG AP GHG Conventional 3595.8 8.74 19.9 0.0564 21.4 Hybrid 4156.7 10.10 89.37 0.507 11.6 0.0328 13.3 Electric 4758.3 15.09 1087.6 6.167 1a 0.343 0.00131 2.31 2 5.21 0.0199 7.18 3 10.1 0.0385 12.0 a Numbers in this column refer to the electricity production scenarios. Moreover, Hawkins et al.  compared the total lifecycle Global Warming Potential (GWP) for vehicles of each technology and the results show the advantages of HEVs over ICEVs and the high variations of BEVs, and those can be seen in Fig. 1. Fig. . Comparison of lifecycle global warming potential per km driven. (source: ref. ) 314 Conclusions In conclusion, HEVs have many advantages over ICEVs and can also compete with BEVs because of the high price for latters. They have good energy efficiency and high performance and can compete with both, ICEVs and BEVs. In terms of environmental impacts, in lifecycle they have significant lower emissions than ICEVs and in some cases against BEVs too as those are depending on electricity generation mixture. Despite their high initial price HEVs are considered to be a very good choice today and it is estimated that in the next few years their percentage in the car market will get higher. As BEV are still in their early stages for being fully developed and enter the market in competitive terms HEV can be the bridge to the future road transport. (129) (1225 total)
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Why do people stare at interracial couples and feel betrayed by the person of the same race? How must the couple feel when people stare at them everywhere they go? In June of 1958, a white man and a half African-American and half American-Indian woman, both native citizens of Virginia, wed in South America. Not long after the marriage the couple returned back to the state of Virginia where they decided to establish a happy family. In October of 1958 the couple received an indictment charge, stating that the marriage had violated VirginiaÃ¢â¬â¢s law of no interracial marriages. The couple was found guilty and was sentenced to one year in jail; however, the judge saw no harm in the marriage. If the couple would leave the state of Virginia, and not come back until another twenty-five years, he would suspend the sentence. Interracial marriages go through trials and tribulations. Family acceptance is important to interracial relationships. One way a couple can tell if their family approves of the wedding is by how many people attend the ceremony. Ã¢â¬Å"Of these ceremonies, whether religious or civil, the gatherings were small with only a few close relatives or friends attendingÃ¢â¬ (Porterfield 103). Family members, who do not agree with interracial relationships, will show how they feel by not attending the wedding. Close family members will support the bride and groom but not the marriage itself. After the marriage, the newly weds will sense tension at one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s family gatherings (Porterfield 105). A newlywed couple needs to feel a substantial amount of acceptance because marriage is one of the biggest steps in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and newlyweds need to know they have not made the wrong decision. The family of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s partner can cau... ...cult to do in society. Society figures that once a person has a drop of black in them, they are considered black not white. As part of life in this society, they must learn to deal with conflict such as racism directed towards them from the individuals, who need to fit everyone into a particular category (Rosenblatt, Karis, Powell 193). If a parent was to check the white box and the appearance of their child seems to be blacker than white, it can be seen as a problem. In conclusion, society needs to consider the feelings of interracial couples. A person may not agree with interracial relationships, but they do not need to discriminate against them. Even today in the year 2002, society has its problems with interracial relationships. Through education and the way couples raise their children, the problem or problems facing interracial couples will diminish.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
DNA contains genetic material and information that makes up each individual trait. Every person can be identified by providing his or her genetic information based on a particular DNA strand. DNA information is an effective way of identifying persons if it is used properly. It is used to identify humans in different situations such as crime scenes, accident scenes, paternity testing, soldier remain identification, inheritance claims, missing person investigations, and convicted felon databases. Although there are different ways to identify DNA, the most common method is DNA fingerprinting. The process that was used in the lab experiment was gel electrophoresis.Before DNA fingerprinting, a different method called Blood typing was used. This method was used to identify people by taking a sample of dried blood. But this method had some disadvantages; for example, many people who receive blood by transfusionundergo changes in their blood characteristics,making difficult the blood typing; also, blood typing required an amount of body fluid that sometimes was not enough or that other times was deteriorated, making it impossible to do the blood typing. So, because of these disadvantages, DNA fingerprinting began to be used as a forensic tool.Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFPLÃ¢â¬â¢s) is a restriction enzyme that recognizes a specific strand of the nucleotides in DNA. This strand is different in every individual; the restriction enzymes cut the part of the DNA strand that is different, and it is used in gel electrophoresis to identify a person. For example, in crime scene investigations the DNA sample that is found is compared with the sample of suspects bythe gel electrophoresis procedure in order todetermine if the suspect committed a crime.When doing the gel electrophoresis process,different DNA strands are set in the lanes of the gel, and they are run by an electrochemical gradient from negative to positive to separate these strands. When the strands separate, they group themselves in bands. The shortest bands travel at higher speed; therefore, they are found at the end of the gel. This experiment gives the possibility to identify which bands are the same to theÃ one that was found in the scene, allowingreaching the objective, which is to uncover who is responsible at the crime scene.MATERIALSRestriction enzyme Colored micro-tubes contain DNA samples DNA loading dye Agarose gel Pipet Tips Electrophoresis apparatus TAE Buffer Centrifuge 120 ml of 100X blue stain. Tray 40 to 50 Celsius of tap water. IceMETHODS1. In the lab experiment DNA samples were provided in colored micro-tubes that were incubated in ice.2. 5 ulof DNA loading dye were placed in each sample tube and each tube was flipped gently with afinger. 3. A centrifuge was used to mix the DNA sample with the loading dye. 4. Theagarose gel was placed with thetop of the gel to the negative side in electrophoresis apparatus, and the electrophoresis box was filled with TAE buffer until it had completely covered the gel. 5. A pipet was used with different tips, and DNA samples were loaded into different lanes of the gel in the following order: Lane 2: DNA sizes marker 10ulLane 3: Suspect one, 20 ul Lane 4: Suspect two, 20 ul Lane 5: Suspect three, 20 ul Lane 6: Suspect four, 20 ul Lane 7: Suspect five, 20 ul6. The lid was placed in the electrophoresis chamber and plugged into the power supply. The power supply was turned on and the samples were electrophoresed at 100V for 30 minutes. 7. After that, the gel was removed carefully from the gel box and placed in a tray. 8. 120 ml of 100X fast blast of DNA stain was added. The gel was stained for two minutes with gentle movement. 9. The gel was transferred into a large tray and the gel was rinsed with warm tap water twice, with gentle shaking.The gel was leftto dry for 24 hours.Loadind dye was Centrifuge wasused Gel was placed DNA samples were placed in each to mix DNA and electrophoresis loaded in the gel micro-tube samplesloading dyeapparatusElectrophoresis Gel was placed in aGel was transferred Gel was rinse until chamberwas connected tray filled with to a clean tray the excess of stain to the power supply stain with warn tap water was removedRESULTSGel ElectrophoresisMolecular marker Crime Scene Suspect 1 Suspect 2 Suspect 3 Suspect 4 Suspect 5 Band Distance (mm) Actual size (bp) Distance (mm) Approx Size (bp) Distance (mm) Approx. Size (bp Distance (mm) Approx. Size (bp) Distance (mm) Approx. Size (bp) Distance (mm) Approx Size (bp) Distance (mm) Approx Size (bp 1 4 23,000 10 5,700 12 5,000 12 5,000 10 5,700 12 5,000 12 5,000 2 7 9,400 12 5,000 17 2,500 15 4,400 12 5,000 18 2,300 14 4,600 3 9 6,500 19 2,250 18 2,300 17 2,500 19 2,250 22 2,200 19 2,250 4 15 4,4005 18 2,3006 22 2,000DNA Bands Data TableBased on the results of the gel electrophoresis, suspect number threeÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA sample matches with the crime scene sample, not only because they look the same, but also because o f the distance that strands travel along the gel, and the base pairs that they contain. The DNA bands of the crime scene sample were found at 10, 12, and 19 mm, instead of the bands of suspect numbers one, two, four, and five,which were found at different distances than the crime scene sample. Only the bands that correspond to suspect number three were found with similar distances to the crime scene one. Finally, the base pairs of the DNA bands of suspect number three and of the one found in the crime scene were 5,700 bp for the first set of DNA bands, 5,000bp for the second set, and 2,250 bpfor the third set. All of these results indicate that suspect number three was responsible for the crime committed in the crime scene.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONSIn conclusion, DNA fingerprinting and electrophoresis were used to determine the size of the unique strand cut by restriction enzymes that identifies the individual who was responsible in the crime scene. This lab taught how to conduct an electrophoresis experiment, and how importantthe use of this method is to solve a problem that is common in society. In this process different DNA samples were provided, and after doing the electrophoresis experiment, it was found that the suspect committed the crime. DNA profiling, whichwascalled at first DNA fingerprinting, is used for other purposes, as was mentioned earlier. One of those is paternityÃ testing.At this time, this method has become less difficult than what people may believe. Some laboratories provide this service, sending to their clients a kitwith everything that is needed to collect a sample of DNA.This sample, which could be a small portion of cheek tissue taken with a swab and put in a labeled envelope, is returned to the lab to be analyzed. Sometimes when this type of test is required for legal reasons, the sample to be evaluatedis taken under supervisionin order to avoid any intentional errors. DNA fingerprinting and profiling have become common processes , but also these have become very important because they help to get accurate results by using genetic information in order to solve different situations such as a crime or paternity identification.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it Columbia River has been providing the surrounding human beings with salmon for a long period. In the beginning, a remarkably healthy relationship between this natural feature, and the people surrounding it was very healthy and productive.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The people used to treat all natural features with respect, as thy also benefited from them. It was the responsibility of everyone to protect rivers and other features. On the other hand, natural features used to provide enough sustainability to humankind. Everyone would wish this mutual relationship to last forever. Before the arrival of non-Indians, the land and water bodies were rich and very productive. The people who lived around this basin relied on salmon, as part of their religion and culture. The society had a culture of honoring salmon, as t hey served them with plenty food, and surplus to trade with in other regions (Roe 117). The above chart shows the positioning of Columbia River in Washington Oregon, and Idaho (Columbiariver.com). The culture of the people around the river connected Columbia River both spiritually and physically. This was made possible through salmon providing humankind with the necessary energy to move on with life.Advertising Looking for report on geography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, Native Americans made efforts to experience and learn more about the great river. The cultures of these people taught them that salmon as part of smolts they used to go to pacific for some food and a chance to grow (Cox 307). However, the changes in temperature and other forces in the pacific, failed to favor the life of salmon, making them go back to their streambeds for reproduction and death. According to the beliefs of the Native Americans, salmon were coming back through spiritual forces, as they were less expected back. When salmon got back in Columbia River, it turned as a great joy to these people, as they considered this as their harvesting season. They took this issue as a gift, as they were never involved in either planting or growth of salmon. Their work was only harvesting. The history of the area provides evidence that Coyote used to advise the Indians on how to cook salmon properly. Coyote also shaped the big rocks at the falls, so that people would use them to catch fish. According to one historian named Richard White the technologies that were initiated by indigenous humans as one of natural technologies of the Columbia (Cox 118). It was the culture of these people for men to work hard in hunting the fish, and women to preserve them. The major method, which was used to preserve these fishes were by smoking, to make them available during the fluctuations. This region also provided humans with enough sun energy that would dry those fishes. Most Indians proffered drying their fish with sun energy, unlike the Native Americans who used to smoke.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, the relationship of Columbia River and the people surrounding it started changing slowly. For the last 150 years, several wasteful and disrespectful practices affected the river, and other natural features around the area. These activities marked the onset of conflict among the people who solely depended on these natural resources. The natural resources were destroyed, due to lack of adhering to the treaty that was made in 1855 (Hall 23). Lack of good human management of the Columbia River and ocean resulted to destruction of the natural resources. The people around the region discovered that things are getting out o f their hands, when they realized some species are disappearing. Several attempts of fighting back for the productivity of Columbia River were made by these people. It was evident that, salmons have been the sole source of sustenance of people within the locality. Some people used salmon when offering religion gifts, as well as played as a great part of their culture. Geology of Columbia River The formation of Columbia River is estimated to have started approximately between 12 and 17 million years ago. This period is dated back to the Miocene. Approximately between 700000 and 2million years ago, is when the Columbia River started taking its current shape (Roe 98). Geologists date this period with Pleistocene, when the activities of forming cascades ranges were ongoing. In addition, the formation activities of cascades ranges resulted to the mechanical movement of Columbia rivers delta, towards the north side of its current position. Advertising Looking for report on geography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The above figure shows the Columbia River flood basalts leaving organic rocks exposed (geology.com). For a period, the Columbia River slowly eroded the surrounding land. Geologists considered some of those activities as minor, while others were significant to be noted. For instance, there was a great impact of the river towards the end of the final ice age. During this period, the river flooded, the steeps were destroyed, leading to strong walls that exist today along the river (Cox 312). Severally, the Columbia River caused strange and strong floods, some going as high as Crown Point. To some extent, the flooding resulted to quick soil erosions to the nearby land, leaving large layers of rocks exposed. Fresh water The Columbia River is a fresh water system, surrounded with green trees such as big leaf maple and vine maple. The various precipitation within this area results to different types of ecosystems. The major feature that contributes to increment of fresh water in this river is the availability of temperate rainforest wit average annual rain of 1900mm. Other important natural resources that contribute to the existence of fresh waters are the waterfalls. The area has more than 90 waterfalls, with some as high as 190m high. Much of the Columbia water flows into Pacific Ocean. It is considered as the most dominant water system in that region. It has been estimated that approximately 15million people rely on the presence of fresh water from this river (Roe 106). PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s several activities like transportation, fishing and industrial water rely on the Columbia fresh water. Globally, this is the highly utilized river in hydro electrification generation. The hydropower is generated from this river through the establishment of more than 400 dams. The Columbia ice fields are the relied source of water for Columbia River. Among all economic activities supported by the river fresh water, the most crucial for people surrounding it is fishing. The above fig ure shows the flow of Columbia River fresh water flow (geology.com). There was a time, when people around the basin decided to look for a permanent solution, to save their natural resource. These people could not let the natural provision of fresh water to be destroyed. They searched for ways of saving salmon and its entire species, as a way of sustaining themselves and boosting the economy in the area. The plan was meant to be their solution, to safeguard the future of their grandchildren, and many generations to come (Cox 216). The efforts of humankind to save the productivity of Columbia River received some religion support from Ã¢â¬Å"catholic bishops of Columbia river watershedÃ¢â¬ . The religion forum suggested that the values that these people will express, the objectives that they will raise, and their insights would dictate the direction of solving the issue. The main theme of restoring and solving the complex issues of Columbia River was that it entailed the spiritual, s ocial, and cultural lives of the people around the basin. Cox, Ross. The columbia River: Adventures during a residence of six years. New York: Biblio Bazaar, 2010. Hall, Stewart. The columbia River. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 2007. Roe, JoAnn. The Columbia River: A historical travel guide. Michigan: Fulcrum Pub, 2004.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Ovarian Cancer StagingÃ¢â¬ written by M. Steven Piver Md. and Gamal Eltabbakh M.D. is about the staging system for Ovarian Cancer. Staging describes how far the ovarian cancer has spread. Once Ovarian Cancer is suspected, The patient must undergo an operation known as Exploratory Laparotomy. This procedure which by definition, Involves an incision through the abdominal wall- is essential to surgical staging. This type of operation is important for everyone who undergoes treatment for Ovarian Cancer, To ensure that each patient recieves the best possible care. If cancer is detected, The physician will cut away as much of the tumor as possible. The extent of surgery will depend on what type of cancer is found and how far reaching it is. In most women only one Ovary is removed. I personally do not agree with the way the physician handles the tumor, and neither does my mother who has stage three-c Ovarian Cancer.(four is the highest). The physician wanted to take out just one Ovary, this procedure is known as Unilateral Oophorectomy. My mother had both ovaries taken out, the uterus, fallopian tubes, and the omentum, which is the fatty tissue that covers the bowels. The physician also collected biopsy samples from the lymph nodes, abdominal aorta, and the diaphragm. Finally Peritoneal lavage was conducted to microscopically detect cancer cells in the fluid that is withdrawn. Every women is at risk for Ovarian Cancer, regardless of age, heritage, or medical history. A womens risk of being diagnosed with Ovarian Cancer is 1 in every 55. Every women should undergo an annual Recto-vaginal Examination. To date, No screening tests have shown to be 100% affective. The symptoms are subtle and in many cases the cancer has spread by the time it is found. Staging provides an estimate of disease free survival, and the risk of cancer recurrence. This article was pu... Free Essays on Ovarian Cancer Free Essays on Ovarian Cancer Ã¢â¬Å"Ovarian Cancer StagingÃ¢â¬ written by M. Steven Piver Md. and Gamal Eltabbakh M.D. is about the staging system for Ovarian Cancer. Staging describes how far the ovarian cancer has spread. Once Ovarian Cancer is suspected, The patient must undergo an operation known as Exploratory Laparotomy. This procedure which by definition, Involves an incision through the abdominal wall- is essential to surgical staging. This type of operation is important for everyone who undergoes treatment for Ovarian Cancer, To ensure that each patient recieves the best possible care. If cancer is detected, The physician will cut away as much of the tumor as possible. The extent of surgery will depend on what type of cancer is found and how far reaching it is. In most women only one Ovary is removed. I personally do not agree with the way the physician handles the tumor, and neither does my mother who has stage three-c Ovarian Cancer.(four is the highest). The physician wanted to take out just one Ovary, this procedure is known as Unilateral Oophorectomy. My mother had both ovaries taken out, the uterus, fallopian tubes, and the omentum, which is the fatty tissue that covers the bowels. The physician also collected biopsy samples from the lymph nodes, abdominal aorta, and the diaphragm. Finally Peritoneal lavage was conducted to microscopically detect cancer cells in the fluid that is withdrawn. Every women is at risk for Ovarian Cancer, regardless of age, heritage, or medical history. A womens risk of being diagnosed with Ovarian Cancer is 1 in every 55. Every women should undergo an annual Recto-vaginal Examination. To date, No screening tests have shown to be 100% affective. The symptoms are subtle and in many cases the cancer has spread by the time it is found. Staging provides an estimate of disease free survival, and the risk of cancer recurrence. This article was pu...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Vietnam the history of, and the political policies of the United States and Vietnam - Term Paper Example However, this was not always the case. Although there were behind the scenes talks between the two countries in the twenty years since the end of the war in 1975 it was not until 1995 that diplomatic relations were officially re-established. Since then the relationship between the two have been improving with each passing year. The present U.S. administration, headed by President Barack Obama has now officially designated the Republic of Vietnam as a Ã¢â¬Å"significant partnerÃ¢â¬ . This paper will briefly outline the changes that have occurred in the last forty years, concluding that overall there is now a strong diplomatic and economic bond uniting the two nations. The U.S. relationship with Vietnam in the twenty years leading up to 1995 was strained. Almost immediately after its victory over South Vietnam the new Republic further antagonised American interests by turning to the U.S.S.R. for military aid and financial assistance (Largo 2002). China, other smaller South East Asian nations and the United States were all concerned with the growing influenced of the Soviet Union in the region; ironically, the very reason that the U.S. had previously involved itself in the Vietnamese civil war. The Vietnamese decision to invade Cambodia in 1979 also strained an already tense relationship. The U.S. promised to continue the trade embargo put in place after 1975 until Vietnam removed its occupying forces from Cambodia (Largo 2002). The prisoner of war issue also strained the relationship between the two countries. For many years after the end of the war in 1975 the U.S. claimed that Hanoi was not doing enough to repatriate American service personnel held prisoner during the war. While it is unlikely that American POWÃ¢â¬â¢s remained captive after the end of the war the image remained a strong one for many in the U.S; indeed, the image of the captive American was such a powerful cultural icon that it had a significant negative effect
Friday, November 1, 2019
What do you think is the most significant change in correctional policy in the last 100 year and why important - Essay Example Violators of social norms, rights and freedom are referred to as offenders. The correctional policy is designed to address the resultant conflict that emerges when the justice system is jeopardized by individuals or groups of people. One of the significant changes that have been realized in the correctional policy is the embracement of the fact that offenders have rights. In the early stages of the implementation of the policy, the rights and freedoms of individuals subjected to the policy were often curtailed and therefore not observed. However, over the years, the fact that the offenders have rights too have been upheld, leading to from time to time reforms that account for the welfare of both the offenders and the community prior to the interests of the policy. Secondly, the policy has evaluated and assessed punishment mechanisms in a bid to realize the required corrections. In this regard, diversity and dynamism in modes and mechanisms of punishments have been adopted over the years. While strict and specific procedures of corrections were employed in the earlier years of the practice of the policy, reforms, rehabilitation, reintegration and restraint are common in the policy today (Roberts & Springer 32). On the same note, the policyÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity has made it possible for its practice to encompass alternative programs that ease pressure in correctional facilities. Sentencing guidelines prior to the desired goals and objectives of the correctional policy have significantly changed over the last 100 years. Uniformity and proportionality are the two primary aspects that have characterized this change (Cole & Smith 495). Offenses of the same or similar magnitude are critically matched to carry the same sentences, as provided for by the policy. With regard to proportionality, the policy differentiates between offences and