Monday, September 30, 2019
Life leads us to excessive wishes that often result in a manÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall. Sir Philip Sidney in the passionate Ã¢â¬Å"Thou Blind ManÃ¢â¬â¢s MarkÃ¢â¬ portrays his hypocrisy towards desire and shows how it influenced to their downfall and destruction. In his sonnet, Sidney uses metaphor, alliteration, repetition and personification to convey his feelings for desire. Throughout Ã¢â¬Å"Thou Blind ManÃ¢â¬â¢s MarkÃ¢â¬ Sidney uses metaphors that clearly illustrates the effects of desire on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. He begins with the metaphor of desire as a Ã¢â¬Å"blind manÃ¢â¬â¢s markÃ¢â¬Å", the title of the poem, that shows desire is aimless.He then goes on to call desire Ã¢â¬Å"fools chosen snareÃ¢â¬ illustrating that desire is an act of foolishness, moreover he adds weight to his accusations by comparing desire to the Ã¢â¬Å"web of willÃ¢â¬ a difficulty brought by men upon themselves.. The use of these metaphors allows the reader to understand his views that to desire c ould be counted as the biggest mistake of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Sidney continues to convey his dislike of desire with the use of alliteration. He uses alliteration to parallel desire and increases the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in the poem.The repetition of specific words emphasizes his negative thoughts on desire. For example he says Ã¢â¬Å"cradle of causeless careÃ¢â¬ . This focuses on the idea that desire can cause one to care about someone for no real reason. He uses this technique again when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"with price of mangled mindÃ¢â¬ , a similar idea that while trying to accomplish a foolish task he yet didnÃ¢â¬â¢t achieve anything but still lost his sanity. Other example includes Ã¢â¬Å"fond fancyÃ¢â¬â¢s scumÃ¢â¬ where the poet compares desire to dirt, and illustrates that it is an addiction.Sidney also uses repetition to highlight his consistent encounters with desire. His repetition of Ã¢â¬Å"too long! Ã¢â¬ shows his frustration with desire and the long ter m effects it has on him. It is clear that Sidney is unhappy with the way desire had effected his actions and decisions he has made in his life. He also repeats Ã¢â¬Å"in vainÃ¢â¬ that discusses the impact of desire on is life and how it hurts the people that feel desire. He used personification to mortalize his enemy and show life to his hatred of desire.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Air compressors are among the most widely used equipment in the industry. They find public-service corporation in electronic, automotive, building and fabrication industries among others. However, the broad scope of available compressor types and monetary values make their purchase an highly hard determination. To avoid blowing your clip and money on the incorrect air compressor and salvage yourself of future compressor problems, see the followers before purchasing your air compressor.Buying Considerations:Types of Air Compressors: Three chief types of air compressors are normally used in industries. Rotary Screw Air Compressors: They use duplicate prison guards to compact air and shop it in hard-hitting armored combat vehicles. Rotary compressors cost more than reciprocating compressors. They can run full-time, have a responsibility rhythm of 100 per centum and are most-suited to applications necessitating uninterrupted usage. Rotary compressors can supply 1500 CFM of air flow in a individual phase and over 2500 CFM in two or more phases. Reciprocating or Piston-driven Air Compressors: They use Pistons to compact air and shop it in high force per unit area armored combat vehicles. Reciprocating compressors are the most economical. They are designed for portion clip usage and extremely suited for intermittent applications including portable applications and place workshops. Small air compressors produce 5 HP or less while larger compressors reach 1000s of HP. Reciprocating compressors reach up to 50 CFM with a individual phase and up to 100 CFM with two or more phases. One HP normally produces 4-5 CFM of air flow. Centrifugal Air Compressors: They are turbine engines, used in power workss and high-end industrial applications, and compress air through revolving blades. They are the costliest of all air compressor types. Centrifugal compressors operate at 400-8000 HP and bring forth airflows higher than 1000 CFM.Add-On Utilities and Oil-Free Compressors:Dry, cool and clean air allows you to better the length of service of your fabrication equipment. Desiccants: They remove wet from compressed air for water-sensitive equipment. Coolers: They lower compressed air temperature. Filters: They remove drosss such as oil and dust from compressed air. Oil-free compressors: They provide oil-free or oil-less air for oil sensitive equipment such as nutrient applications and semiconducting materials and utilize compaction Chamberss sealed off from the oil-lubricated machine parts. They are much more expensive than regular rotary and reciprocating compressors. Compressor Space: Air compressors generate a batch of heat and noise. If possible, apportion a separate compressor room to incorporate the noise and blowhole the heat. Alternatively, if you do non hold adequate infinite, an enclosure can be used to cut down heat and noise from the compressor. Reciprocating compressors are louder than rotary compressors. Power Requirements: Compressors can be powered by electricity or with a gasolene or Diesel engine. Energy demands vary from 100V to 500V and supra, depending on compressor size. Mobility: Pay careful attending to grips, wheels and compressor weight when looking for a nomadic compressor. Engine-driven compressors normally come with their ain nomadic dawdlers. When short on floor infinite, opt for vertically oriented compressors to salvage infinite. Pressure and air flow: Carefully find the air force per unit area and air flow demands for every piece of your equipment and happen a compressor that can run all your equipment. Air force per unit area and flow information is normally available within equipment certification. If you can & amp ; acirc ; Ãâ Ã¢â ¢t happen this information in the certification, reach the maker for an educated conjecture. Add up the air flow values and multiply the amount by 1.5. Choose the highest air force per unit area and increase it somewhat. Make certain your chosen compressor & A ; acirc ; Ãâ Ã¢â ¢s air flow and force per unit area evaluations match these values. Future Expansion: Reciprocating air compressors have an mean life of 10-15 old ages while rotary compressors have a lifetime of 20-30 old ages. See the air flow and force per unit area demands of equipment you wish to purchase in the close hereafter before choosing the air compressor type and size. Make certain your selected air compressor can run into both your nowadays and future demands for maximal benefit. Air Compressor Pricing: Air compressors are available in a broad scope of monetary values from $ 500 for a less than 1 HP power compressor to over $ 50000 for 200HP or more compressors. 5 HP reciprocating compressors cost $ 1500-2000 and 5 HP rotary compressors cost $ 2500-4000. At 10-25 HP, compressor monetary values range from $ 4000- $ 10000 or more. 50 HP compressors cost between $ 12,000 and $ 15,000 and 100 HP compressor monetary values range from $ 20,000- $ 30,000. Oil-free compressors costs are about triple the monetary value of regular air compressors. Individual compressor parts and fix services are besides available. If upfront payment is a job, you can inquire your trader for funding, leases or monthly leases. New compressors come with at least a 1-2 twelvemonth guarantee and service contract. Used compressors are besides available in the market. Two-stage theoretical accounts, that recompress compressed air for higher compaction, are available in both rotary and recipro cating compressors and are costlier than one-stage air compressors. Energy costs: These costs make up over 70-90 per centum of the entire ownership costs of an air compressor, over a 5-10 twelvemonth period. So make sure you select efficient air compressors over inefficient low cost 1s for long tally fiscal benefits. Before buying an air compressor, inquire your trader for its Compressed Air and Gas Institute ( CAGI ) data sheet to measure its energy efficiency readings. Manufacturer and Dealer Considerations: Choose a maker committed to bring forthing air compressors as mainstream equipment. Talk to several air compressor traders and acquire information on multiple trade names, before choosing a trader. Ask about trader repute and length of service in the concern, figure of staff members available for compressor service and service rates. Get mentions from traders and inquire them about trader public presentation. You can besides inquire your industry contacts about their air compressor traders to help you in trader choice. Traders with favourable market reputes and 15-20 twelvemonth experience are good versed with compressor jobs, and can offer better and faster support and service. Make sure you pick an efficient air compressor with sufficient air flow and air force per unit area from a reputed and experienced trader to acquire maximal benefits from your air compressor. Air compressors are your long-run friends, so take your clip and avoid any hastiness in doing your purchase determination.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Montrail Brooks Dr. Livingston AES 364 Muscular Analysis Introduction Block starts was create first created to help the grounds keeper take better care of the running surface with was made of clay or cinder. Starting blocks has came a long way from being a single holes dug in the ground to the high tech, lightweight, but yet expensive running aid their now. To properly observe and describe the breakdown of the hop, skip, and jump phases, while determining the muscles that cause these movements.The triple jump, referred to as the hop, skip and jump, is a track and field event similar to the long jump. The only difference between the two is that the hop, skip, and jump involve a hop and a step, whereas the long jump involves just a jump. In the first phase of the triple jump, the competitor builds momentum by sprinting down the runway, planting their lead foot at the marked board, and Ã¢â¬Å"hopsÃ¢â¬ into the air, cycling one leg around into phase two.After completing the cycle, the lead foot strikes the ground again initiating the Ã¢â¬Å"skipÃ¢â¬ , where the opposite leg is brought up and the body goes into the bounding position. Finally as the body is coming out of the bounding position, the opposite leg hits the ground in order to propel or Ã¢â¬Å"jumpÃ¢â¬ the body forwards, aiming for distance rather than height, into the pit. [pic] The phases In the triple jump, there are three joints that aid in movement of the hip, the knee, and the ankle. Together the three joints allow optimum distance and proper stability for the jumper.The hip, which holds the femur and pelvis, allows the jumper to extend as his foot strikes the board. While keeping the knee in flexion, he pushes off into the cycling pattern. In the skip phase, the hip will remain in a flexed position as the trail leg goes into extension. When in the jump phase, the hip allows the leg to go from an extended position, to a partial flexed position. The knee, which hold the fibula, tibia, femur, a nd patella, just like the hip is a very important part of the triple jump process.In the initial Ã¢â¬Å"hopÃ¢â¬ phase, the knee extends, but quickly switches to flexion throughout the cycling pattern. During the Ã¢â¬Å"skipÃ¢â¬ phase the knee will remain in flexion, while extending the opposite leg. Following the second phase, the lead leg switches to the trail leg, which remains in flexion for the final Ã¢â¬Å"jumpÃ¢â¬ . Finally, the ankle is made up of three separate joints: the talocrucal joint, inferior tibiofibular joint, and subtalar joint. These joints, just like in the kinetic chain, are where the power originates from.In the Ã¢â¬Å"hopÃ¢â¬ phase, the ankle of the lead leg will remain dorsi flexed, and the trail leg will be slightly plantar flexed, but will quickly draw up into the dorsiflexion. As the jumper enters into the Ã¢â¬Å"skipÃ¢â¬ phase the ankle will remain dorsiflex, while the trail leg switches to the front. This will allow the trail leg to go dors iflex, and the lead leg to deliver a powerful push-off into plantarflexion. [pic] The muscles and their functions in the Hop, Skip, and Jump phase.The muscles involved in the triple jump are the quads: rectus fermoris (allow hip concentric flexion and knee eccentric extension), vastus lateralis, medialis, and intermedius (helps the knee eccentric extend); the hamstring muscles: semimembranosus, semitendious, and biceps femoris (allows the jumper to extend the hip and normally pair with the help of the eccentric gluteus maximus); and finally, the lower leg muscles: concentric tibialis anterior, the concentric extensor digitorum longus (which provide the ankle with the ability to perform dorsiflexion), the peroneus longus, soleus, and gastrocnemius (which allow eccentric planterflexion for that last jump push-off). The main stabilizer, the gluteus medius, acts as a front plane stabilizer and restricts the leg from turning in vargus or valgum, allowing the leg to plant. Conclusion An i mportant factor in determining the power and momentum developed in the sprint start is the angle of the front leg in the set position.Most literature accepts that an angle close to 90 degrees is the ideal angle in this position. It allows the knee extensors to work best at the correct time for maximum power and momentum to be developed. An angle in excess of 90 degrees may allow a faster leg speed out of the blocks but will not develop the same power and momentum. Borzov (1980) in his investigations into an optimal starting position varies a little, with a suggested ideal front leg angle of 100 degrees. Opinions on rear leg angle vary between 110 degrees and 135 degrees. Tellez & Doolittle (1984) suggest an optimal angle of about 135 degrees for the rear leg because it allows the lever to move more quickly and allows greater impulse from a static position.They also suggest that an early body velocity provided by the rear leg drive past the front leg is a better mechanical position t o accelerate through a more prolonged application of force. Conclusion An important factor in determining the power and momentum developed in the sprint start is the angle of the front leg in the set position. Most literature accepts that an angle close to 90 degrees is the ideal angle in this position. It allows the knee extensors to work best at the correct time for maximum power and momentum to be developed. An angle in excess of 90 degrees may allow a faster leg speed out of the blocks but will not develop the same power and momentum.Borzov (1980) in his investigations into an optimal starting position varies a little, with a suggested ideal front leg angle of 100 degrees. Opinions on rear leg angle vary between 110 degrees and 135 degrees. Tellez & Doolittle (1984) suggest an optimal angle of about 135 degrees for the rear leg because it allows the lever to move more quickly and allows greater impulse from a static position. They also suggest that an early body velocity provide d by the rear leg drive past the front leg is a better mechanical position to accelerate through a more prolonged application of Reference: Track and Field News Presents: Technique and Drills for the Long Jump and Triple Jump. Gary Derks. Fundamental Aspect of the Triple Jump for Dummies By: Fritz Spence and Gerald Masterson, PH. D.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Law Society - Essay Example Then the new role which the Law Society has to play is discussed with the initiatives of government. The study concludes stating the roles taken by the Society in implementing the regulatory changes. The Society was first founded on June 2nd 1825. The Society acquired it's royal charter in 1831, and commenced its operations from a new building in Chancery Lane, in 1832. "A new Charter in 1845 set the Law Society as an independent, private body servicing the affairs of the legal profession like other professional, literary and scientific bodies". (Formation of the Law Society, 2004: para 2) The former title of the society was 'The Society of Attorneys, Solicitors, Proctors and others not being Barristers, practicing in the Courts of Law and Equity of the United Kingdom' which later became colloquially renowned as "The Law Society". It changed its name officially in 1903. (Formation of the Law Society, 2004: para 4) The current legal regulatory system is biased with no clear objectives or principles and functions with minimal interests towards the consumers. There exists a confusion regarding the current system supervising bodies' viz., Law Society and Bar Council. (Reform of legal services, 2006) The areas of regulations for legal services suffer from various regulatory gaps, functional overlaps and irregularities. For instance, in cases of service providers like solicitors who provide legal advice as well as non-incidental financial advice, they are regulated simultaneously by the Law Society and the Financial Services Authority. (Regulatory Gaps, 2004) A consultation paper published in May 2003 depicts Government's conclusions on the issues analyzed on matters as raised in the document "In the public interest". (Government Conclusions, 2003) The Department for Constitutional Affairs in its report published in July 2003, arrived at a conclusion that the framework of regulations regarding lega l services in England and Wales was highly inefficient and outdated in handling current legal requirements of the consumers. (Legal Services Review, 2004, Para 1) Consequently, Lord Chancellor, Lord Falconer ordered a review into regulation of the legal services. The Chancellor described the current frame work of the Law Society as "outdated, inflexible, over-complex and insufficiently accountable or transparent". (Lawyer regulation 'needs change', 2004: para 11) On this behalf, an inquiry, headed by former deputy governor of the Bank of England, Sir David Clementi, came forward with his suggested recommendations including the establishment of a new regulatory society, the Legal Services Board. (Lawyer regulation 'needs change', 2004) Proposed changes in the regulation of legal services Sir David Clementi, in December 2004, published a report suggesting important changes on the regulation of legal services which also won the support from the Government. Clementi, through his report suggested many reforms for the efficiency of legal service including the removal of disparity of business structures, the references, how the new structure would benefit the legal service, the clear distinction that has to be made between
Thursday, September 26, 2019
How do power relations and organizational politics affect organizational change and development What is the role of political b - Essay Example It is due to these disparities in attitude that some forms of conflict begin to surface between managers and employees or even between colleagues at the same levels of authority in the organisation. It is not, however, solely due to attitude, the intangibles of psychological programming, that leads to conflict in the organisation. Especially relevant in highly bureaucratic organisations with thick layers of management, political gaming surfaces when individuals who believe they hold power resources or seek to fulfil a self-serving agenda create a unique type of conflict that is much more difficult to thrive within. This is referred to as organisational politics, Ã¢â¬Å"the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organisationÃ¢â¬ (Mayes and Allen 1977, p.673). Because recognised political behaviour is not condoned by the systems and policies established by the organisation, it becomes more difficult for those being persuaded by political positioning to recognis e what drives power struggles and therefore serve to counteract it when it occurs. This paper describes the role of organisational politics and power relationships in the organisation and how these factors influence or impede organisational change. 2. ... When this type of power manifests itself, employees must conform, however it can lead to long-term resentment or intention to exist the organisation for being forced to operate under oppressive management systems. The second type of power is utilitarian power, a system reliant on rewards and punishments to gain compliance. Pay raises, promotions or even direct threats of potential job loss are tactics utilised under utilitarian power conceptions. This is a common power dynamic in the organisation that incentivises more effective job performance. The third type of power is normative power, in which the organisation, itself, believes that it has the fundamental right to control and govern employee behaviour. Under this power conception, leaders in the organisation establish a unified corporate culture and then demand that employees conform to these socially-driven values even if the individual does not necessarily share the same conceptions. It is highly dependent on the individual emo tional and personality-based behaviours within the organisational context as to how power and political behaviour will manifest themselves. This is why organisational politics is considered by many to be a game, consisting of moves and counter-moves between different organisational actors in order to gain persuasive or coercive influence to ensure that the party in conflict complies with the needs and demands of the organisational politician. This game must Ã¢â¬Å"be played with due diligence and a full comprehension of the players, rules and organisational landscapeÃ¢â¬ (Bolander 2011, p.2). It would seem that in order to understand how to counteract unethical or unproductive
Spatial Inequality around London and other UK Cities - Essay Example 25). Introduction The UK is a welfare state and has been quite active in ameliorating expanding social inequalities that are attached with spatial segregation. This background on spatial segregation has given rise to the basic inquiry over the extent of spatial inequality in London and other cities of the UK. Spatial inequality is generally gauged by social inequality (as appraised via socio-economic parameters the like of un/employment or standard of education) or on race or ethnicity (as appraised by parameters of race or ethnic minority) (McIntosh, 2002). Data Deficiency Problem of insufficient quantitative data has been dominant across all European cities. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why EUROSTAT and the European Union has initiated research programmes, the like of BETWIXT project on selected cities including London. On social and employment scales, the European Community Household Panel Survey, the unitary Labour Force Survey and some new programmes have been initiated with a focus on comparative proof, policies and indicators and the Urban Audit with an increased area focus on standard of life data, which includes data on city level as well. Yet these efforts are handicapped by the absence of a single data source to predict outcomes on sub-city spatial segregation. ... defining a list of specific policy recommendations for reducing Ã¢â¬ËexcessiveÃ¢â¬â¢ spatial inequality or increasing Ã¢â¬ËbeneficialÃ¢â¬â¢ spatial inequalityÃ¢â¬ (2008, p.35). In this regard, both statistical and theoretical perspectives hold value. What is Spatial Inequality? Spatial inequality can be defined by pointing out the gap in living standard because of lacunas in social and economic causes over a territory that can be quite large or small in size. In a country, spatial segregation can exist to start from state, province, district, and city and at neighbourhood level. At neighbourhood level, spatial inequality cannot be addressed by the central government to help implement positive policies because neighbourhood is quite low administrative level (Faguet and Shami, 2008). Fiscal policy can play a positive role in fighting the causes of inequality or reducing its effects or the possibility is that policy can aggravate the spatial inequality. According to Cheshire (2007), there is a decisive causation relationship between poverty and place. Comparing the indicators of deprivation among residents with affluent neighbourhoods is important but we can not measure how it affects the opportunities in peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives, as there is no way to keep an eye on them (p. 18). Motivations and desires as well as luck play a role in deciding the place of living. Neighbourhood choice depends on many other factors, as pointed out by Goering et al. (2003). Ã¢â¬Å"Since people typically select their neighbourhoods to match their needs and resources, researchers restricted to cross-sectional, non-experimental evidence must try to separate the impact of personal factors affecting choice of neighbourhood from effects of neighbourhood.Ã¢â¬ (Goering et al., 2003, p. 4). Personal factors impacting
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Presenting for the Future - Essay Example Immigration accountability requires earnest action beyond executive orders unleashed by President Obama. The remedy will stabilize immigration procedures, boost tax, and offer fight illegal crossing at national borders. Organizational influences immigration through the structure in place. An organization structure for example within United States Citizenship and Immigration Services will influence ethical behavior of the staff working in various departments. An immigration system that has rigid and hierarchical structure will limit the capacity of employees towards implementing reforms in the documentation process. An autonomous decision-making process will result in a department that offers employees relevant experience and moral development in handling immigration dilemmas. Flexible structure allows immigration departments to make high-level decisions irrespective of their level to realize the sound and ethical practices; hence, the need for such a structure. An organization that handles immigration should hire employees legally. The human resource department will be charged with implementing immigration policies and reforms if it adopts a legal process to acquire employee fit for the job. Compliance in a public office is essential as opposed to labor costs that will be saved after hiring unqualified employees. Decentralization and ad hoc structure defines the human resource department of USCIS. The structure has hampered efforts to modernize immigration procedures and match the economic and national security agendas. The department has shielded efficient transformation initiatives that have the potential to heal the immigration wound. Restructuring of USCIS human resource department has paved way for critical immigration practices entrusted with the organization. Structure does not foster anti-fraud and homeland security measures as required by state and federal governments. Department of Homeland
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Dell Inc - Case Study Example Dell has successfully entered the Chinese marketplace and holds 7% of the market. Dell is forth in sales in China followed closely by IBM and Hewlett-Packard. Dell lags behind Legend, Founder, and Tongfang. Dell's greatest challenge has been competition from local venders who can market a product at a fairly low price. Corporate governance consists of a board of directors. The board has several committees with a different board member chairing each. "The Board of Directors is responsible for oversight of and supervision of the overall affairs of the company" (Dell, 2007). Dell's Asia Pacific Region President is Bill Amelio and Kevin Rollins is the CEO. The Dell Executive Leadership Team is chaired by Michael Dell. Mr. Dell founded the company in 1984 with $1000 and big ideas. He leads a team of 13 other highly qualified executives that share the same goals and objectives for Dell. Mr. Dell and his team have been exceedingly successful building the company and expanding its business to the global marketplace. Dell's leadership has made it a competitor in the Chinese market. The market for computer products and services in China is very competitive. With the large increase in ownership of computers has come an increased usage of the internet. As China moves to withdraw tariffs on computer products the demand for these products will rise. Chinese businesses and individual consumers will continue to seek out and buy these products. B./C. Industry Environment/Summary of External Forces The computer industry is full of potential competitors. With China's withdrawal of tariffs and barriers to trade the market in China for personal computers and components will be more and more competitive. The market remains competitive in China because, in addition to brand name computers, the market includes clones (generic non branded computers) that can be purchased at lower prices. Currently Dell's sales in China make up only 10% of its overall sales. U.S. sales are at about 69% of overall sales. Dell's major competitors in China are Legend (27% of market share), Founder (10% of market share) Tongfang (8% market share), IBM (5% market share) and HP (3% market share). Dell's current market share in China is 7%. With the raising of tariffs, Dell, and other foreign competitors, will be able to compete on a more level playing field for customers. III. Internal Environment (Strengths and Weaknesses) E. Corporate Structure and Corporate Culture The company is lead by a board of directors. Each director provides oversight of different segment of Dell. Dell's Asian Pacific Region is led by Bill Amelio. Dell's Chinese market for personal computers uses the direct selling method that cuts out the 'middleman'. The inventory system used by Dell is called the "just in time" model that keeps inventory levels at a 6-day supply rather than stocking up and having a larger inventory in the warehouses. Inventory is replenished as needed. Inventory costs are kept to a minimum thus Dell can pass on the savings to its customer. Chinese customers can expect Dell's products to be lower priced than its competitors. F. Organizational Activities Analysis Dell uses a direct business model. The company has made it a
Monday, September 23, 2019
What are the main benefits and costs of monetary union What are the main criteria for the optimality of a currency area - Essay Example Thus it eliminates a big hurdle in the way of trade. At the same time, countries get free from any exchange rate uncertainty; get smaller rates of transactions and more secure price transparency. A neutral body acts as central bank on behalf of all member nations of the monetary union. This body being neutral and free from influence of any nation makes it credible for not only all members of the monetary union, but also for outside world. For example, European Central Bank acts as a combined central bank of the European Union. Monetary union is the way of promoting greater economic alliance which is beneficial for all member states and the outside world. For example, it is easy today to deal with a group of 28 countries of Europe at a single platform named European Union. Optimal currency area is also known as optimal currency region. This area refers to single market areas having a single currency across the region. There are many elements that define the optimality of a currency area (Alexandre Swoboda, 1999). It is important to have these elements to become the member of an optimal currency area. So following is the main criteria for the optimality of a currency area: (University of North Carolina,
Sunday, September 22, 2019
The 3 stages of memory Essay Sensory Memory is the earliest stage of memory. Information from our surroundings is stored for a short period of time for auditory information. Short-Term Memory is information that we are aware of or information that we think about. Most of the information that is stored in our short-term memory for a longer period of time than the Sensory Memory. Long-Term Memory has information that is largely outside of our awareness and can be called into our working memory to be used when needed. Some information can easily be recalled while other information cannot. Knowing how our memory works can help us learn better by writing down our thoughts so that we dont forget them. For instance, during my down time at work, I may decide to work on a discussion question and can easily get distracted by questions from my teammates or writing out an email. It would be to my advantage to write down what Im thinking at the moment and refer to it when I need it. From the study that I have taken in the text on page 212. It stated that I was mainly and sound type of learner. I can see where they can get this as a results for the study and I do agree that I do some of my learning from hearing what is being said about a task that I am doing, But I would have to say that I do not really agree with the study. I know that I am a visual learner, I do my best work If I have some one to show me what types of things that need to be done for a certain task. If I had to go along with the study because I do think that maybe half of my task skills come from listening to a task. I think that I would use it at all times. I know when I am working I would use this memory style to work with the patients that I am looking after that day and every day, there are also the nurses and other staff that I am working around. I think that there are people that like toÃ work in certain ways and having the memory this will help to talk with them to know that their likes and dislikes are. This will help me to improve my skill and help make the people around me and the patients happy to want to be working with me. Also using these skills for school will be a big thing for me because there are things that I have to know to complete the task that are due for my assignments. With the sound memory skills I think that this would be better for me because there are a lot of task that I have went through that have a video of some sort to listen to so that I can gather information. This is helping because I can focus on what some one is saying so that I can get the information that I am going to need for that assignment or for the course. I think that there are a lot of different ways that I use to learn and listening to some one explain things is one of my skills. I think that that I have a good memory and I am a fast learner so I think with all my skills put together I have a easier time at learning the skills that I am going to need to learn. I have learned so many things in my life by observing someone else doing it, but the one that stays in my mind is learning how to drive. I remember watching my father turn the wheel, keep it steady, and watched his foot hit the gas petal as well as the brake. I use to practice driving by sitting in a chair with a plate and turn it right, left, and steady. Since I watched my father drive for many years I thought it was my time to show them what I have learned without taking any lessons. Everyone was so impressed with what I knew by only watching my father drive and without any help from a seasoned driver. You can learn a lot just from watching another person, and I am proof of that. Paying attention really pays off and saves a lot of time. The difference between classical and operant conditioning is that classical is more the natural behavior of a subject when exposed to a specific stimulus whereas operant conditioning tries to create a certain reaction by using certain stimulants. The response of the subject in classical conditioning is not learned it is just what comes naturally in a situation, however, the stimulus added to the equation then makes the subject have the same effect to only the stimulus. Operant conditioning aims to produce the desired reaction of the subject by using reinforcement or punishment. One example of operant conditioning is when I first got my Pomeranian and was paper training her. We had to watch her constantly and whenever she went on the pad we laid out for her we would reward her with a, Ã¢â¬Å"Good girl,Ã¢â¬ and a treat. When she failed to make it on the pad, we would scold her and make her sit there while we cleaned up the mess. After a few weeks, she was able to successfully go on her pad whenever she needed to go even if we were not there to praise her. An example of classical training is similar to my other example. My friend had already trained his dog to go outside to use the bathroom; however, she would just sit there until someone saw her so if everyone was in another room she could have been sitting there for hours. He installed a cow bell at the bottom of the door and when he noticed her sitting at the door, he would tap the bell himself to ring it and then open the door for her. Eventually she realized that the ringing of the bell meant that the door was going to open. Classical conditioning occurs when a controlled stimulus is offered to elicit a response. In the case of Pavlovs dogs, the bell elicited salvation. This was only after Pavlov fed the dogs after each time he rang the bell. The rules of classical conditioning are that: 1. A controlled stimulus must be presented before an uncontrolled stimulus. 2. The controlled stimulus and the uncontrolled stimulus have to be timed closely together. 3. The neutral stimulus has to be partnered with the uncontrolled stimulus many times before the conditioning can happen. 4. The controlled stimulus is unique from the other stimulus. When I was younger I would only drink Dr Pepper. When I got pregnant with my first child, Dr Pepper started making me queasy. After several months of realizing I was feeling sick to my stomach every time I drank Dr Pepper, I quit drinking it. To this day I will get sick to my stomach if I drink Dr Pepper.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The Great Healthcare Debate: Liberalism versus Conservatism Alex Fisher A large issue in todays society is healthcare. The clashing ideas about what should be done within the realm of healthcare is such a big deal now more than ever since we have a recently elected president. Much like other issues, there are clashing ideas from different political parties; this case will highlight those of liberals and conservatives. It is important to note that liberals and conservatives tend to clash on all aspects of healthcare such as: amount of government intervention, access or entitlement to healthcare, and federally mandated insurance. Furthermore, it must be stated that each partys stance on these aspects demonstrates a key idea or pillar of their party. The first main aspect of the healthcare debate between the two parties is the amount or level of government involvement. The conservative side argues for minimal government involvement so that healthcare, just like the overall economy, runs like a free market. This facet of the conservative healthcare argument can be traced back to the concept that the conservative perceives the need for prudent restraints upon power and upon human passions (Kirk, 4). Kirk further explains this point of view by stating that The conservative endeavors to so limit and balance political power that anarchy or tyranny may not arise (4). Additionally, this point of view can also be traced back to the conservative concept that there must survive orders and classes, differences in material condition, and many sorts of inequality attempts at levelling must lead, at best, to social stagnation (3). Essentially, Kirk is explaining that conservatives believe that unless there is a natural hierarchy with competiti on, a society will stagnate or lose the ability to progress. After piecing together these pillars of conservative view, it is not surprising that the current conservative argument is for healthcare to be run like any other business in our economy with free market ideals. With this being said, there is a liberal side to the argument of government involvement in healthcare. Their point of view is the complete opposite of the conservatives in that they believe that everyone in the healthcare field should be equal, therefore getting rid of the competition that fuels the free market. The liberal background that influences this point of view is a bit more complex than that of conservatives. One concept in liberalism is that there is a natural state in which mankind falls into. This state of nature involves a natural hierarchy of physical and mental strength; however, it must be stated that this hierarchy will lead to competition; For as to the strength of body, the weakest has strength enough to kill the strongest, wither by secret machination or by confederacy with others that are in the same danger with himself (Hobbes, 1). At first, this concept seems to parallel with the competition and free market ideals of conservatism. However, there is a caveat to this liberal view. Liberals recognize this state of nature, and then argue that mankind should forgo this state for the good of society. Hobbes explains that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war (2). This statement explains the idea that the duration in which mankind is living without a governing power, they are in constant war with each other due to the high levels of competition in the state of nature. Furthermore: In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and continual fear, and danger of violent death (Hobbes, 2) Essentially, this concept in liberalism is that mankind must forgo the vicious competition and violence found in the natural state in order for society, industry, and culture to even exist. These aspects cannot be established if man is more concerned with preserving his own life, and ending that of others to get ahead. For this reason, the liberals are arguing for more equality and less of a business or free market model in the healthcare field. The second main point of contention in the healthcare debate is the question of who should and should not be entitled to healthcare. It is important to note that both liberals and conservatives agree that everyone should get healthcare. The difference in views is found when it comes the financial aspect of healthcare entitlement. Conservatives believe that if you have money to pay for healthcare, you should be paying for it. They do not believe in government assistance for healthcare if you can pay for it yourself. Essentially, it goes back to the old adage that there is no such thing as a free lunch; except in this case its healthcare instead of lunch. This concept can be explained through the conservative concept that conservatives are guided by their principle of prudence (Kirk, 3). What this means that Any public measure ought to be judged by its probable long-run consequences, not merely by temporary advantage or popularity (3). Conservatives do not want to just start handing ou t healthcare for free or at discounted prices because it would have a hefty impact on the economy in the long-run. In the present time, the general population would love to have free or even cheap healthcare, but the United States economy is not in the position to be able to do that. This is what the conservatives are thinking about when refusing to give handouts. Conversely, the liberal view is that even if you could pay for healthcare, you should not go broke for it. This concept can be traced back to the liberalistic idea that the whole purpose of government is the preservation of property (Locke, 3). Furthermore, this connects to their idea of abandoning the state of nature because The great purpose for which men enter into society is to be safe and at peace in their use of their property (Locke, 3). Forcing people to pay for healthcare until they reach bankruptcy violates these ideas. By making people give up all their money for such a basic right like healthcare, the government is no longer preserving the property (or money) of the people in the society. To take this concept even further, there are things that liberals believe a governing body cannot do. Among this list is it doesnt and cant possibly have absolutely arbitrary power over the lives and fortunes of the people (Locke, 4). It should also be noted that Locke stated that legislature can never have a right to destroy, enslave, or deliberately impoverish the subjects (5). Making people pay for healthcare until they no longer can, instead of giving government assistance completely goes against these liberal ideals. It is for this reason that liberals prefer to provide assistance for healthcare even if the person has the ability to pay for it. The third focus of the healthcare debate is the concept of federally mandated insurance. This refers to whether decisions about laws involving healthcare and health insurance should be left to the federal government or if it should be an issue that is decided on a state by state basis. According to an article by Michael Bihari, MD: Mandated health insurance laws passed at either the federal or state level usually fall into one of three categories: Health care services or treatments that must be covered, such as substance abuse treatment. Healthcare providers other than physicians, such as acupuncturists. Dependents and other related individuals, such as adopted children Essentially, what Dr. Bihari is saying is that the most common mandated healthcare laws involve the coverage of necessary treatments, specialists, and dependents. After getting a good idea of what these mandated healthcare laws typically are, it should be aware that the most common debate on this aspect is who gets to decide if the law gets passed or not. Should each state get to choose if they want to pass and recognize the laws set forth or should the federal government pass healthcare laws for the entire nation? A subset of this question is should people face financial penalties if they fail to comply with these mandates? The conservative view on this matter is that these decisions should be made on the state level, not federal. Furthermore, the conservative party argues against any form of monetary penalties if people fail to adhere to these healthcare laws. For example, under the Affordable Care Act, there is fine for people that do not have health insurance. The conservative view is against this concept of health insurance mandate compliance. This side of the argument can be traced back to the conservative pillar that conservatives uphold voluntary community, quite as they oppose involuntary collectivism (Kirk, 4). Additionally, conservatives believe that: the decisions most directly affecting the lives of citizens are made locally and voluntarily. Some of these functions are carried out by local political bodies, others by private associations; so long as they are kept local, and are marked by the general agreement of those affected, they constitute healthy community. (Kirk, 4) In laymans terms, conservatives believe that decisions that greatly impact citizens, such as healthcare, should be decided by a governing body close to the population. This big of a decision cannot and should not be made by the federal governing body since each state has a different set of circumstances. There is no way that the federal government is completely aware of the needs of the people of each state. Furthermore, conservatives are against forced collectivism. Leaving healthcare mandates to the federal level means that these decisions are being made for the entire nation. It is forced collectivism by means of the nation instead of the individuality of each state. Moreover, giving that kind of collective power to the federal government gives way to a standardizing process hostile to freedom and human dignity (Kirk, 4). Each state should have the freedom and ability to decide what is best to uphold or bolster the standard of living created in each. Furthermore, each person shoul d be given the freedom to make their own choices about a personal matter such as healthcare. Penalizing people for not complying with healthcare mandates takes away this freedom of decision. On the contrary, liberals argue for healthcare mandates on the federal level. They also support the idea of monetary penalties for noncompliance. This aligns with the current themes seen in the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare. The Affordable Care Act is a federally mandated healthcare act that penalizes people that do not have insurance. This view can be explained by the classical liberal idea that: The only way to erect such a common power, as may be able to defend them from the invasion of foreigners, and the injuries of one another, and thereby to secure them in such sort as that by their own industry and by the fruits of the earth they may nourish themselves and live contentedly, is to confer all their power and strength upon one man, or upon one assembly of men, thay may reduce all their wills, by plurality of voices, unto one will. (Hobbes, 3) What Hobbes is saying is that in order to organize the chaos of the state of nature, the people must decide on a person or group of people to represent all their voices and decisions in one. Additionally, Hobbes further explains the scope of this assembly of men: every one to own and acknowledge himself to be author of whatsoever he that so beareth their person shall act in those things which concern the common peace and safety; and therein submit their wills and their judgements to his judgement. (3) This further explanation translates into the concept that liberals believe that government should have a large amount of power and intervention. This is the reason why the liberals are arguing for federally mandated healthcare laws. Another level of that increased government power and intervention is the aspect of financial penalty for noncompliance. These fines are ensuring that everyone is following their mandates. In conclusion, the debate on healthcare has been going on for several years and has shown no signs of stopping anytime soon. The liberal and conservative parties have clashing views on aspects of this debate such as the amount of government involvement, access or entitlement to healthcare, and if healthcare should be federally mandated. The views or arguments of these parties can be explained and traced back to key ideas or pillars of their party. Conservatives favor less government intervention, prudent reform, and local governing bodies whereas liberals favor more government intervention, equality or less competition, and that a government should not deliberately impoverish their community. https://www.verywell.com/mandated-health-insurance-benefits-1738931
Friday, September 20, 2019
Biological Importance Of Water And Lipids Water is arguably the most essential building block of life; it is the most abundant molecule in cells, whole organisms, and on Earth. Every single organism contains water, typically forming 70 95% of the mass of a cell; a typical human being is compromised of 60% water. Without water, life cannot exist. Water also provides an environment for the organisms that need it to live, as three quarters of the Earth are covered in water. Water is an excellent solvent in general, including polar molecules (eg. glycerol and sugars) and ions. This is because the water molecules are attracted to, collect around, and separate/dissociate the atoms from each other (as the forces of attraction between the negatively charged part of the water molecule and positively charged sodium cation is greater than the forces of attraction between the sodium and chloride ions). Once a chemical is free in its solution, it is then free to roam about and react with other chemicals most processes in organisms are done via this way in solution. In stark contrast, non-polar molecules such as lipids are insoluble in water; when surrounded by water, they tend to be pushed together, as the water molecules become attracted to each other. This is extremely important in reactions such as hydrophobic interactions in protein structure (reactions where atoms dissociate from each other) and in membrane structure, as it increases the stability of these structures. Some molecules have strong intramolecular forces, and do not dissociate in water; however, some do have charged regions on their surface, which result in attracting a layer of water around the molecules. These regions attract water molecules, which are surrounding and are weakly bound to the molecule and cannot move away from its surface this is known as a colloidal suspension. This helps create a concentration gradient for the process of osmosis, as it would for example, assist in drawing water into the blood vessels. Because water is such an effective solvent, it can transport essential substances necessary for the functioning of cells/whole organisms eg. glucose, amino acids, fats, vitamins, respiratory gases etc. Similarly, metabolic reactions (catalysed by enzymes) occur in solution. So, the charged nature of a water molecule means it can act as a solvent, an essential property to living organisms. Water is the transport medium in the blood, in the lymphatic, excretory and digestive systems of animals, and in the vascular tissues of plants. When minerals are absorbed by plants from the soil across root hairs, the minerals are in an aqueous solution of water. The water based movement of sugars, amino acids and hormones (eg. in phloem) and transpiration stream are also in solution. All the transport fluids used in animals like cytoplasm, blood, plasma and tissue fluid are water based. Essential metabolites dissolve completely in water, like glucose, amino acids, minerals and vitamins. Larger molecules like proteins are transported as colloids (molecules which are weakly bound to water molecules). Water being essential to the transportation of necessary substances correlates strongly to water being an excellent solvent, as it is mostly through solution that these substances can get to where they are required. However, water does have other properties which make it suitable for tra nsportation; the low viscosity of water also enables it to flow easily through tubes eg. xylem vessels. Water is a polar molecule, in which it has both positively and negatively charged areas; water consists of two positively charged hydrogen atoms and one negatively charged oxygen atom. As a result of this polarity, opposite (one positive hydrogen atom, one negative oxygen atom) water molecules are attracted to each other and a hydrogen bond is formed. The individual hydrogen bonds are weak, but collectively they make water a very stable medium eg. it remains a liquid over a wide range of temperatures. This property is vital to sustain life in all living organisms. Water is effective as a temperature regulator; its high specific heat capacity (it takes 4.2 Joules of energy to raise one gram of water by 1Ã °C it takes a lot of heat energy to significantly raise the temperature of water) allows it to act as a buffer, a necessity in endothermic organisms that need to maintain a constant body temperature in order to fulfil its enzyme potential, and therefore regulate metabolism. The high amount of hydrogen bonds in water also makes it difficult for water molecules to evaporate; when they eventually do, a high amount of energy is released, which in turn acts as a cooling mechanism; this is crucial to life, as internal body temperature needs to be maintained at a constant temperature, any fluctuations can result in a breakdown of essential processes. It must be reinforced that water is a polar molecule, which means it remains a liquid over a wide temperature range, which is good for metabolism and to ensure that aquatic animals in the ocean do not freeze. Water actually has a high, latent heat of fusion from solid to liquid; it requires 300 Joules per gram of ice to melt water, which means that water stays liquid. This is vital for cell cytoplasm, which is made of a high percentage of water: once frozen, a cell would be damaged beyond repair. The freezing point of water is also lowered by solutes, as the soluble molecules disrupt the hydrogen bonds, making the water freeze at a lower temperature and easier to melt into ice. There are many solutes in cytoplasm, ensuring the water will not freeze until well below 0Ã °C, protecting the cells. As water cools, its density increases, and the hydrogen bonds between the water molecules take on a more latticed formation (as ice). However, ice floats on the surface of water: this must mean that it must have a lower density than water. Water is at its most dense at 4Ã °C; this is because it is at this temperature that the bonds are closest together. When water freezes, the lattice arr angement of its structure loosens slightly, and it will float on the surface. Thereby, the layer of ice would insulate the water below, maintaining its temperature of 4Ã °C and aquatic life can continue. Water is useful in sexual reproduction, and is used by animals that use this to create offspring. Water brings male and female gametes together in the process of fertilisation, and in mammals, the foetus develops in a water filled amniotic sac, which provides both physical and thermal stability. Bryophytes (scientific terms for land plants) release antherozoids (male gametes in plants) in moist conditions, which then use flagella to swim to oospheres by chemotaxis; chemotaxis is the phenomenon in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell/multi-cellular organism can direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. Lipids constitute an essential component of a cell, and has tremendous biological importance. Triglycerides are a major group of lipids formed by the combination of three fatty acid molecules with one glycerol molecule and are the main source of energy in animals. One gram of lipid on oxidation release 9.3 kilocalories of heat however, the same amount of carbohydrate only release 4.5 kilocalories in comparison. These are found in adipose tissue (occupying around 90% of the cell volume), which consists of fat cells designed for constant synthesis and decomposition of triglycerides by the enzyme lipase to produce high-caloric energy. A lot of migratory birds depend on their stored energy to fuel their long distance flights. ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) can be produced when fatty acids are oxidised. Triglycerides can be easily stored as they are insoluble in water, meaning they will not dissolve in anything but chloroform, ethanol and ether. This is due to the long hydrocarbon tails of the fatty acids (consists of a chain of carbon atoms combined with hydrogen). Unlike polar water molecules, the fatty acid tails have no uneven distribution of electrical charge therefore, triglycerides will not mix freely with water molecules. An animal cell membrane is a flexible lipid bilayer. The lipid molecules (mostly phospholipids) that make up the membrane have a polar, hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. When the lipids are immersed in an aqueous solution, the lipids rapidly bury the tails together, and leave the hydrophilic heads exposed. This is therefore a very useful membrane, as it can easily automatically repair itself if torn. There are three different major types of lipid molecules: phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids. Different membranes have different ratios of the three lipids. A special feature about these lipid membranes is the presence of different proteins on the surface, used for different functions such as cell surface receptors, enzymes, surface antigens, and transporters. Many of the membrane-associated proteins have hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The hydrophilic regions are used to help anchor the protein inside of the cell membrane; some proteins extend across the lipid bilayer, others cross the bilayer several times. Lipids are an excellent energy reserve, as they are very rich in carbon-hydrogen bonds, even more so than in carbohydrates. A given mass of lipid would thereby yield more energy on oxidation than the same mass of carbohydrate (it has a higher calorific value). Fat is stored in a number of places in the human body, especially just below the dermis of the skin and around the kidneys. Below the skin, it acts as an insulator against the loss of heat. Blubber is an example of a lipid found in sea mammals (eg. whales), which functions in both providing insulation and buoyancy. The myelin sheath is a dielectric material that is made up of approximately 80% lipid and 20% protein, and forms an insulating layer around the axon, as well as increasing the speed of impulses, due to there being gaps in the myelin sheath (nodes of Ranvier). Fat serves as a protective cushion and provides structural support to help prevent injury to vital organs, such as the heart, liver, kidneys, and spleen. In the lungs, surfactants are an example of a lipid barrier. Surfactants reduce tension, as without it, the wet surfaces of the alveoli in our lungs would stick together, and the lungs would not be able to expand, thus rendering breathing impossible. Fat insulates the body from heat loss and extreme temperature changes; simultaneously, fat deposits under the skin may be metabolized to generate heat in response to lower skin temperatures. Lipids can also act as a metabolic source of water; when oxidised in respiration they are converted to carbon dioxide and water the water could be important in dry habitats eg. the desert kangaroo rat never drinks water, instead surviving on its metabolic water from its fat intake. Sources: Water = http://www.williamhoward.cumbria.sch.uk/intranet/Science/KS5/Abiology/Factsheets/factsheets1-72/Bio%20Press%20Factsheets/30%20water%20page%201.pdf, Biology 1 textbook
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Comparing Death of a Salesman and The American Dream Ã Ã Ã In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Death of A Salesman and Edward AlbeeÃ¢â¬â¢s The American Dream, Willy Lowman and Mommy possess the trait of superficiality. Their priorities are to look good and be liked, and this contributes to their misguided paths to reach success. This attribute is one of many societal criticisms pointed out by both authors. Arthur Miller criticizes society for perceiving success as being liked and having good looks. He illustrates societyÃ¢â¬â¢s perception through Willy, who thinks the keys to success are being popular and attractive. Willy transmits this philosophy to his sons by ignoring their education and personal growth and setting an example that popularity is most important.Ã Edward Albee criticizes society for the same thing. He points out the wrong priorities in life such as emphasizing good looks and the wish to be liked at the expense of deeper ethics and morals. Through MommyÃ¢â¬â¢s incident with the hat, which showed she wanted to be liked, and her problems with her own sonÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and mental faults, which showed she cared too much for good looks, Albee shows how society is misguided in its methods to achieve success. MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Willy shows many times that his idea of success goes no deeper than the superficial by teaching his sons the wrong path to a successful life. When Biff was in high school, Willy had already started to teach his son the false values in which he believed. When Willy found out Biff had stolen a football and was caught by his coach, who did not get angry, Willy responded by using the incident as an example of the importance of his philosophy. "ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s because he likes you. If somebody else took that ball thereÃ¢â¬â¢d be an uproar." (... ...ve path in the form of Bernard, who unlike Biff and Happy, does well in school, is not well liked by others, and is a relatively unattractive man. However, his goals are more within reach because he is prepared to work hard and is less concerned with the opinions of others. Ã Works Cited and Consulted Albee, Edward. The American Dream. Toronto: Plume, 1997 Baym, Franklin, Gottesman, Holland, et al., eds.Ã The Norton Anthology of American Literature.Ã 4th ed.Ã New York: Norton, 1994. Costello, Donald P. Ã¢â¬Å"Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Circles of Responsibility: A View From a Bridge and Beyond.Ã¢â¬ Modern Drama. 36 (1993): 443-453. Hayashi, Tetsumaro.Ã Arthur Miller Criticism.Ã Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1969. Martin, Robert A., ed. Arthur Miller.Ã Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982. Miller, Arthur.Ã Death of a Salesman.Ã New York: Viking, 1965.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Internal and External Conflict in George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) :: Nineteen Eighty-Four 1984 Essays
Internal and External Conflict in 1984 Ã The book, 1984 by George Orwell, is about the external conflict between Winston Smith and Big Brother; and the internal conflict between the two ideas, democracy and totalitarianism. Orwell wrote the novel to show society what it could become if things kept getting worse: he sensed of the expansion of communism when he wrote the novel. The conflict between democracy and totalitarianism at the year of 1945 created two characters, Winston Smith and Big Brother, in orwell's mind. Big Brother is the embodiment of all the ideals of the totalitarian party. In contrast to Big Brother, Winston Smith keeps the idea of democracy emphasizes freedom, he has to hide his own thought because the Big Brother's party will punish him by death if the party finds it out. George orwell criticizes of Big Brother's society by describing it as a dark and a gloomy place. It warns that people might believe that everyone must become slaves to the government in order to have an orderly society, but at the expen se of the freedom of the people. Ã Ã The conflict between Winston and Big Brother starts from the beginning of the novel when Winston begins to keep his secret diary about Big Brother. Winston Smith is a third-nine years old man who is a member of the 'outer-party'--the lower of the two classes. Winston works for the government in one of the four main government buildings called the ministry of Truth where his job is to rewrite history books in order for people not to learn what the past used to be like. Winston's occupation is the major factor which lets him to realize that Big Brother is restricting people's freedom. However, Winston keeps his complains about Big Brother and the party for his own secret because the party will not allow anyone keeping a rebellious thought. The tension between them gets serious when Big Brother becomes suspicious of Winston. Winston is therefore watched by O'Brien, an intelligent execute at the 'Ministry of Truth', who is a member of the 'inner party'--the upper class. Without doub ting Big Brother's trap, Winston shares his ideas with O'Brien. O'Brien mentions a gentleman named Emmanuel Goldstein whom he claims to know the leader of the rebels against the party. O'Brien also promises to help winston, and promises him a copy of Goldstein's book. But O'Brien betrays him as Big Brother has planned. Internal and External Conflict in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) :: Nineteen Eighty-Four 1984 Essays Internal and External Conflict in 1984 Ã The book, 1984 by George Orwell, is about the external conflict between Winston Smith and Big Brother; and the internal conflict between the two ideas, democracy and totalitarianism. Orwell wrote the novel to show society what it could become if things kept getting worse: he sensed of the expansion of communism when he wrote the novel. The conflict between democracy and totalitarianism at the year of 1945 created two characters, Winston Smith and Big Brother, in orwell's mind. Big Brother is the embodiment of all the ideals of the totalitarian party. In contrast to Big Brother, Winston Smith keeps the idea of democracy emphasizes freedom, he has to hide his own thought because the Big Brother's party will punish him by death if the party finds it out. George orwell criticizes of Big Brother's society by describing it as a dark and a gloomy place. It warns that people might believe that everyone must become slaves to the government in order to have an orderly society, but at the expen se of the freedom of the people. Ã Ã The conflict between Winston and Big Brother starts from the beginning of the novel when Winston begins to keep his secret diary about Big Brother. Winston Smith is a third-nine years old man who is a member of the 'outer-party'--the lower of the two classes. Winston works for the government in one of the four main government buildings called the ministry of Truth where his job is to rewrite history books in order for people not to learn what the past used to be like. Winston's occupation is the major factor which lets him to realize that Big Brother is restricting people's freedom. However, Winston keeps his complains about Big Brother and the party for his own secret because the party will not allow anyone keeping a rebellious thought. The tension between them gets serious when Big Brother becomes suspicious of Winston. Winston is therefore watched by O'Brien, an intelligent execute at the 'Ministry of Truth', who is a member of the 'inner party'--the upper class. Without doub ting Big Brother's trap, Winston shares his ideas with O'Brien. O'Brien mentions a gentleman named Emmanuel Goldstein whom he claims to know the leader of the rebels against the party. O'Brien also promises to help winston, and promises him a copy of Goldstein's book. But O'Brien betrays him as Big Brother has planned.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Since Nov. 1, 1957, when the Mackinac Bridge opened to public traffic, the iconic symbol has stood as solemn testimony to mankind's engineering abilities. The Mackinac Bridge is made up of more than one million tons of concrete and steel. Its towers rise 552 feet above the Straits of Mackinac and reach 210 feet below the waves. From May 7, 1954, until late fall of 1957, about 3,500 laborers worked in and over the Straits of Mackinac constructing the bridge. The project cost the lives of 5 men. In addition, 7,500 people labored in offsite job shops and quarries from Duluth, Minn., to Pittsburgh, welding, forging and assembling steel, mining rock and mixing concrete. There was a total of 85,000 blueprints printed for the construction of the Mackinac Bridge.Construction began on the bridge on May 7, 1954, following years of debate on how to best cross the Straits of Mackinac. Everything from a tunnel to a series of causeways, tunnels and bridges going from Cheboygan to Bois Blanc Island to Round Island to Mackinac Island finally ending in St. Ignace- before a single suspension bridge with two towers was ultimately chosen. This was made possible because of Steinman's experience with other bridge projects, with it prompted him to encourage private financing for the Mackinac Bridge. The bridge was financed through a unique bond sale that covered its $100 million cost without using state or public funding. The bonds sold to pay for the Mackinac Bridge were retired July 1, 1986. To anchor the 100 million gross tons of the Mackinac Bridge, man-made mountains were required to be built in 88 feet of water. The anchor blocks- piers 17 and 22-were to become the beginning and end of the world's longest suspended span to date. The harbor at St. Ignace became the home base for Merritt-Chapman and Scott's marine construction equipment, regarded in 1954 as the largest gathering of its type ever assembled for a civilian project. St. Ignace was the location for land-based construction of the giant steel foundations and bridge support pieces. Decompression sickness, or Ã¢â¬Å"the bends,Ã¢â¬ was a constant threat to the safety of the divers who worked in the extremely cold, deep water of the straits. Commonly told among school children an ironworker who lost his footing fell to his death. It's said he landed in newly poured concrete, where his body lies today, preserved beneath the bride connecting the two peninsulas of Michigan. While historians say no iron, worker is encased in concrete, five people did die in accidents related to construction of the bridge. One died when he surfaced too quickly, a welder died when he fell into an underwater retaining structure, a worker fell from a short distance into the water and drowned, and two others fell 550 feet from a catwalk near the North tower, according to the authorities. Of the two workers who fell from the catwalk, one body was recovers immediately and the other was never found. Mackinac Bridge workers, like many workers involved in an intense high-stakes project, enjoyed a special camaraderie that they still speak of today. There was a feeling of togetherness, of them all being in the same situation, and of beating the odds. There was also a concern for each-others safety and welfare, with many of the men becoming lifelong friends. A new record for underwater consolidation of concrete was set in the spring of 1955, when work resumed after a long winter of ice and snow. During the 31 days of May that year, 103,000 cubic yards of concrete were poured into foundations of the Mackinac Bridge. A final step before the cables were encased in a protective piping was a coat the wire in a corrosive-resistant, Ã¢â¬Å"red-leadÃ¢â¬ paste. This was done to protect against rust and corrosion, two factors which could seriously compromise the integrity of the suspension system. The coating was a terrific success, as annual inspections done by removing the piping reveal little to no damage done by the forces of nature. Besides the main suspension span, the Mackinac Bridge is really constructed of a series of smaller, conventional bridges that would span many wide, formidable rivers and gorges. The building of these linked spans took place for the most part on land. All the work was done within sight of ferryboat passengers, crossing for the last 35-minute trips before they would be able to drive across the new route in less than 10 minutes. Michigan's miracle Bridge was becoming a reality. Workers were issued a safety helmet complete with miner's light and a life jacket for the boat trip out to the job site. Beyond that, all they took along was their lunch. The men would then leave the lifejackets on board for the next crew, disregarding the fact that they were working around very deep water that could be extremely cold. The general highway approach to the bridge was being formed at Mackinaw City, where a viaduct took the highway over the villages main street, Central Avenue. The date was July 22, 1957, and inclement weather delayed the raising of the final piece of Dr. David B. Steinman's geometric puzzle to conquer the Straits of Mackinac. That evening, the last section was raised and bolted into place, connecting the steel of a bridge that would tie Michigan together as a state. All suspension bridges are designed to move to accommodate wind, temperature change, and weight. Thanks to the open grating installed on the middle two lanes of the Mackinac Bridge, the design flexes easily when necessary. Wind water and snow easily passes through the grates surface. The completed tollbooth and administration building were readied just in time for occupancy before the Mackinac Bridge opened for business. The last job to get the Mackinac Bridge ready for traffic was to coat the concrete traffic lanes with a layer of bituminous asphalt, completed only days before the official opening. Tolls have always been a staple of the bridge to offset the costs of construction and maintenance. Opened on Nov. 1, 1957, tolls were set at $3.25 per passenger vehicle. In 1961, tolls rose to 3.50 and again to $3.75, where they stayed until 1969, when the Legislature passed funding for the authority and tolls were lowered to $1.50 for a passenger vehicle. The cost for traversing the bridge remained at $1.50 until 2005, when it was raised to $2.50, because of increased maintenance costs, Sweeney said. The Mackinac bridge is the third-longest suspension bridge in the world behind the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan at 12,826 feet between suspensions and the Great Belt Bridge in Denmark at 8,921 feet. Both bridges opened in 1998. At 8,614 feet between suspensions, the Mackinac Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Western Hemisphere. The total length of the Bridge 28,372 feet. It links Mackinac City in the Lower Peninsula. At just over five miles, the bridge is long enough to cause some trouble for crossing motorists who fail to fill up their gas tanks before crossing. To keep the bridge looking pristine, workers spend countless hours and use myriad gallons of paint. Ã¢â¬Å"Every year we use around 50,000 gallons for spot painting,Ã¢â¬ said Sweeney. Of the paint used each year, 45,000 gallons of green is used on the lower sections and cables, while 5,000 of ivory is used on the structures. Because of an $80 million maintenance plan, the 50-year-old structure is expected to have an infinite lifespan. Overhead highway lighting was installed to make nighttime crossings of the bridge safe and enjoyable. The bridge lighting could be seen for miles from either the Mackinaw City or St. Ignace shores, and cable lighting provided a further distinctive accent. One thing that bridge workers did not do before the bridge opened was paint it. The construction schedule dictated a November opening, and painters needed warmer temperatures before they could begin the big job of painting such a large structure.On November 1, 1957, traffic officially opened on the Mackinac Bridge. A huge story, the event attracted 150 newspaper men from throughout Michigan and neighboring states that included Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, New York, and Ontario. Only a comparative few of the thousands of people attending the celebration were able to watch the dedication of the Mackinac Bridge, held at pier 22, the north anchor block of the bridge, on June 28, 1958. It was there that a five-mile length of ribbon was stretched from Mackinaw City at the south end and from the St. Ignace shore to the north. The Mackinac Bridge began celebrating the first year it was open by offering the public a chance to walk across the span. The event started as a race-walking activity, but soon became popular with thousands who wanted to return the following year and bring their friends with them. On May 9, 2003, the highest wind speed ever recorded on the bridge occurred at 4:08 p.m. The anemometer read 124 miles per hour.Area: Bridge sparks questions, myths. Keywords used to find article: News paper articles on Mackinac Bridge. Found at the local library. Published in Lansing. Authors are Michael Carney and Capital News Service. It was published Monday, February 26th, 2007. The purpose this source serves for my topic. Gives important dates such as when construction started on the bridge, also goes into detail about the tolls and amounts for crossing the bridge. Michael Carney writes about the work of the Mackinac Bridge. The structure of the document would be an informative news paper article. Works Cited: Carney, Michael. Ã¢â¬Å"Area Bridge Sparks Questions, Myths.Ã¢â¬ The Mining Journal [Lansing] 26 Feb. 2007: 3A. Print. Images of America Mackinac Bridge. Keywords used to find book: History of the Mackinac Bridge. Found at Public Library. Published by Arcadia Publishing Charleston SC, Chicago IL; Portsmouth NH, San Francisco CA. Author Mike Fornes. Published in 2007. The purpose this source serves me is it gives me the history for both the bridge and everyone who helped to build it. Works Cited: Fornes, Mike. Mackinac Bridge. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2007. Print. Area: Model Marks Ã¢â¬ËBig Mac's' 50th year. Looked up News paper articles on the Mackinac Bridge at the local library. Published in Farwell. I could not find an Author. Published in 2007. The information I pulled from this source help make my introduction to my essay with just enough to get the reader to question what all I was going to go into detail about. Works Cited: Ã¢â¬Å"Area Model Marks Ã¢â¬ËBig Mac's' 50th year.Ã¢â¬ The Mining Journal [Farwell] 28 May. 2007: 3A. Print.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Romantic Innocence Though Romanticism at large is not concerned with lost innocence only, but a whole array of human emotions, it is certainly an important theme for writers of this literary epoch. Several Romantic poems testify to this, as well as other Romantic or pre-Romantic literary texts. In the England of the 18th century, scientific progress along with industrialism had effected great changes in society. Europe on the whole was shifting rapidly: economically, socially and politically. In France, Enlightenment writers such as Rousseau had already started questioning whether Ã¢â¬Å"ReasonÃ¢â¬ as such could solve all human problems, and in England too, Swiftian satire, for instance, had shown how insufficient rational thought can be in effecting solutions to upcoming problems, not the least social ones Ã¢â¬â of which there were to be plenty in the growing urban areas, as Industrialism progressed. Romanticism in literature was asserting itself towards the end of the century, and someone like William Blake, for instance, in his collection of poems, Songs of Innocence and of Experience, strongly questioned the state of affairs where individuals were fed into the ugly mouths of industrial society Ã¢â¬â like innocent lambs crammed into the gaping jaws of the tyrannical machinery of economic progress, administered by a state which subscribed to laissez-faire economic politics, cheered by industrialists, bankers, financiers and manufacturers. The sentiment that much of this was against nature itself was prevalent among many romantic poets and writers. Ã¢â¬Å"In every cry of every Man,/ In every InfantÃ¢â¬â¢s cry of fear,/ In every voice: in every ban,/ The mind-forgÃ¢â¬â¢d manacles I hearÃ¢â¬ , wrote Blake,1 and his was not the only voice of criticism. Blake juxtaposes, as it were, two areas of human experience (Innocence/Experience) Ã¢â¬â but with his lament at Ã¢â¬Å"lost innocenceÃ¢â¬ , there is also the view that these phases are inevitable in human experience Ã¢â¬â perhaps complementary. William Wordsworth, on the other hand, indeed brings forth the view that nature carries a beauty threatened by materialism: The world is too much with us; late and soon, Getting and spending we lay waste our powers: Little we see in Nature that is ours; We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon 2 The poem focuses on the loss of natural values by subscribing to distasteful materialism. The general idea is that we are more at a loss than gain in treating nature Ã¢â¬â and ourselves Ã¢â¬â this way. At this Romantic horizon a lost paradise takes shape: an innocent nature disdained by human greed or folly. This sentiment, obviously, is an ancient one. Where did we lose our step, once out of Eden? Blake would probably say that we never wholly did, whereas Wordsworth might have suffered more from nostalgia? 1 2 Blake, Songs of Experience: Ã¢â¬Å"LondonÃ¢â¬ , 1791 William Wordsworth, Ã¢â¬Å"The World Is Too Much With UsÃ¢â¬ Sources: Alastair Henry, Catharine Walker Bergstrom: Texts and Events, Studentlitteratur 2008 (2001) William Blake: Songs of Innocence and of Experience William Wordsworth: Ã¢â¬Å"The World is Too Much With UsÃ¢â¬
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Philosophy refers to the search for truth, existence, knowledge and performance through sense and rationale. Philosophy attempts to study the nature of existence, soundness, impartiality, beauty, mind and language. Art on the other hand refers to the process of arranging elements in a creative manner that makes them appealing to the senses and the emotions. Art includes performance which involves the use of language. The artist Paul McCarthy, born in 1945 in Salt Lake City, learned his art skills at the University of Utah in the year 1969. On his further studies at San Francisco art institute, he studied painting and went further to study film, video and art at the University of Southern California. McCarthy majors his work in video and sculpture having taught performance, video, installation and performance art history at the University of California (Bronfen 214). McCarthy in his works institutes color as a central theme in his story of modern and contemporary work. McCarthyÃ¢â¬â¢s life and art works are connected to the practice centered on the role of artists within the cultures and the system of art. In his works he proves a bit of a chocker. The use of language and descriptions of all the American culture that he grew up with, he works towards bending and transforming the familiar into the disturbing. The works of McCarthy definitely removes the dark side of the American dream and presents a selection of postmodern works produced between 1966 and 2006. The philosophies of Kierkegaard involved a unifying factor which evolved around three spheres of existence, which is the aesthetic, the ethical and the religious choice in constant tension. According to Kierkegaard the personal aesthetic enjoyment is in the inconsistent search of pleasure which is self-centered. Comparing the artist Paul McCarthy to this philosophy, it is clear that the philosophy involved beauty and pleasure which is mainly egocentric just like the work of McCarthy which involves the provision of pleasurable activities, through performance and beautiful paintings (Robert & Adorno 132). The ethical sphere however is not egocentric but impersonal. It involves a law centered on reasoning as opposed to personal inclination and expediency. Kierkegaard asserts that at this stage, life does not just involve a succession of separate moments of pleasure but is a long range venture which should be structured according to rational principles. The principles according to KierkegaardÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophies do not only include the rules of eventual interest but the conceptual ideologies of morality that describe what an individual should do. Just like KierkegaardÃ¢â¬â¢s ideals, in McCarthyÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to reduce the disadvantages of painting, he resorted to using the body as a canvas. He later involved the use of bodily fluids and foods to act as surrogates in his work. Other than painting the work of McCarthy included transgressive presentation art, psychosexual events which were meant to test the emotions of both the artist and the viewer. McCarthy in his works was known for shocking, sexually charged pieces that feature benign cartoon and pop culture characters reflecting the ideologies of morality which teaches the viewers and the artist on what they should do (Glennie 34). Much of the works of Kierkegaard looks into religious premises like the faith in God, the organization of the Christian church, the Christian ethics and divinity and the emotions and feelings of different people when dealing with the choices of life. Kierkegaard remained the most influential figure in modern philosophyÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration just like McCarthy who remained the most influential artist in the postmodern artistry. Kierkegaard believed and insisted on individual rather than collective responsibility before God. In the stage of true religious choice, only a leap of faith that provides a ground for decision is employed, however there are no automatic rational decision procedures. According to the philosophy of Kierkegaard, acknowledgment of the need for religion as a personal dedication to truth is the major component of life. Relating to this principle of Kierkegaard, McCarthy centers his interest within the daily activities of life and the confusion created by such activities. Due to misinformation by people, McCarthy has been taken to be influenced by the Viennese Actionism. Due to his dedication to truth as his life component, McCarthy clarifies that he knew the activities of the group in the 1970s but there exists a big difference between the self deleterious activities of the Viennese and his own performances. This is a reflection that as KierkegaardÃ¢â¬â¢s principle of individual responsibility to God, McCarthy obeys the same principle and would therefore not engage in the injurious activities of the Viennese (Ben 56). The view of Kierkegaard on the free press can be understood on why he hated the press. He was mainly concerned on the public sphere which had been a source of problem for many intellectuals in the middle of the 18th century before the democratization and the expansion of the press. In his view to the free press, Kierkegaard abandoned the use of internet with the claims that it promoted risk free ambiguity and idle curiosity that undermined responsibility and dedication. KierkegaardÃ¢â¬â¢s opposition to the press is said to have had sociological, political and psychological motivations. He however claims that he does not attack the press because of the liberalism or any other political reason. As has been noted earlier, the works of Kierkegaard mainly revolved around religious issues. His view was therefore opposing free press because he believed that the press and especially the daily newspaper were making Christianity and religious matters impossible. Definitely from his political, sociological and psychological qualms, he considered the press as a threat to both cultural and religious practices. Because of these reasons Kierkegaard continued to attack the public and the press up to 1846 in his writings. With the democratization of the public sphere by the daily press, Kierkegaard felt that the public sphere was becoming a new and a dangerous cultural experience whereby the ranking created by the press was to produce something that was very wrong right from the beginning. In the modern society Kierkegaard gives his total view on the relation of the press, public sphere and the ranking taking place in his time. He considers the press mysterious and desituated with no obsession and dedication and combines in this philosophical age to produce the public. The ideals and the philosophies of Kierkegaard strongly affected the theologians and the existential philosophy. Even though Kierkegaard was a very strong defender of religious faith he was an unhappy, neurotic and a terribly suffering man (Ben 356). His belief was that the best way to disclose truth was through dramatic confrontation of conflicting practices to life. In addition to his ideals and philosophical works, Kierkegaard was a thinker and a genius. His philosophy despite having not been presented in a systematic and analytical manner, contain several wealth of sharp intellectual insights. Due to lack of coherent stance, the philosophies of Kierkegaard have remained questionable. Nevertheless according to Kierkegaard, his principles have been mainly on how one can become a Christian. Other than his philosophical work, Kierkegaard had complex poetic work which rewards careful reading. The totals of moral of his philosophy can be put into a single sentence that the existence of human beings needs real passion and thought. Conclusion Art and philosophy may be two different disciplines, but still some principles or morals of an artist and a philosopher may relate in some way. The revealed example is between the artist Paul McCarthy and the philosopher Soren Kierkegaard. The ideals and the philosophies of Soren Kierkegaard match the artist Paul McCarthy for instance, both of them seems to value aesthetics, ethical values and religious choices and issues.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
I enjoyed reading The Rich Brother; it deals with everyday life and things that are going on around me in real life. The two brothers, Pete and Donald would always get Into and complain about stuff they don't have or get Jealous of each other, and It shouldn't be that way their siblings. No matter who is doing better than the other or who Is unable to doing something, they both should have been there for each other.In the story the author suggest that the rich one Is Pete, the older brother who Is In al estate, has a franchise In Santa Cruz, and works hard to make a lot of money. Donald, the youngest brother, Is single, lives alone, and paints house when he can find work. Looking at the story based on these few details everyone would suggest that Pete Is the rich one because of money, but It doesn't take money to make you rich. You can be rich because of the knowledge you have or all of the many different talents of skills you have.Everyone thinks being rich means having money, there Is omitting you have to do to make the money in order to be rich so your rich before you even know it. I really can relate to this story, because my father and uncle is this way. My father, whom is the younger brother, is Ã¢â¬Å"richÃ¢â¬ and my uncle isn't (in his own eyes). They both are rich because they are very talented and skilled. My father just decided to take his skills and use them to help him with his future and my uncle just sits around with his many talents and waits for things to be given to him.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Childhood Obesity - Essay Example It has related obesity and performances among teenage girls in both the U.K and United States. Research has been carried out in various universities where grades have been compared to the obesity levels in girls. The researches have been caused by the numerous cases of obesity that have affected school grades. During the test, students were examined their abilities in Math, English and science (Poon 2014). Results show that obese girls acquired poor grades in the tested subjects. The studies were conducted in universities and colleges. On the contrary, the blog has proved to be false in some of the comments because other researchers have shown that both obese girls and boys have gained poor grades (Poon, 2014). Moreover, other contradicting results have been obtained from studies that have highlighted obese girls who have achieved better grades. Some psychologists have argued that there is the presence of other factors that lead to low grades in schools. The obese girls may have had other issues rather than health complications that led to their poor performance. The podcast has included discussions on the rising cases of obesity in the United States and their cause of health threats to the population (Gardner, 2010). The main presenter is Doctor Grossman who claims that parents should adopt the right programs to help their obese children. However, the doctor has used bogus claims on the consequences instead of focusing on prevention of obesity. Families should adopt obesity prevention methods to prevent their children from health complications. Prevention strategies should include the abolition of junk foods from homes and provision of advices on the dangers of obesity. Programs should include more contact time between parents and their children because they help in the sharing of knowledge about obesity (Gardner, 2010). Children should be encouraged to practice regularly rather than staying indoors and playing video games. The TV
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Oil Market - Essay Example Deflation pressure, not inflation, is currently one of the greatest concern for the global economy. During the previous year, producer prices have reduced all over the developed world; consumer prices have been decreasing for the last 6 months in Germany and France; in Japan wages have actually dropped 4% for the past year. Up until the latest crisis prices were decreasing in Brazil; they continue to fall in China and Hong Kong; most probably they will soon be declining in various other developing countries (Case & Fair, 2005). Currently, none of these price reduction of oil seems anything like the great deflation that followed the Great Depression. But the presence of deflation as a common problem is worrying, not just because of its direct economic effects, but because until lately most economists considered sustained deflation as a profoundly incredible prospect, something that must not be a worry (IMF, 2011). Although changes in prices have been controversial, they are the unavoidable outcomes of shifts in demand and supply. The demand and supply of oil are comparatively inelastic in the short run: price changes have a small effect on either the quantity supplied or the quantity demanded. When there is an increase in oil prices, we spend some energy and time complaining but, in the short run, spend nearly no effort in adjusting our habits to consume less. Likewise in the short run, price changes do less to spur new supplies. As the quantities demanded and supplied change slightly as prices increase and decrease, both curves are comparatively vertical as shown in the figure below: Ã Since quantities are comparatively fixed in the short run, any shifts in demand or supply affect prices. For instance, supposing that supply decreases. The reduced supply makes a temporary shortage that will increase the price. If demand is elastic, only a slight increase in price will be required to
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Fictional biography - Essay Example Although many explorers of the established road traversed continents, the Chinese monk of focus in this essay used the Silk Road to establish a religious and cultural interconnection of Asian countries. This fictional biography will highlight the critical aspects that defined the Silk Road, as well as the religious connectivity that resulted from the exploration of the monk. Unlike the literal understanding adopted by many people regarding the Silk Road, it was a virtual road. The term road implies land to many people, but the Silk Road was defined by multiple sea routes that connected different regions between china where it started, Persian cities, India, Somalia, Egypt and other North African regions, until Turkey in Europe. The availability of these routes served to alter the globe in multiple ways (Brockey 67). It introduced new realms of possibilities. These routes saw to it that goods moved from one region to the other, a factor that led to an intensive interconnectivity. Moreover, as people travelled, an interchange of cultural aspects occurred. In the case of the Chinese monk under study, he embarked on a long trip that saw him use the Silk Road routes as he ventured into India. Being a Buddhist, the trip to India was a critical one, because Buddhism had its roots in the region. Throughout his trip, he would gain familiarity with many Buddhist towns, cities, beliefs and a diverse range of history. Trading is known for enhancing civilization all over the world; it is vital for a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth and often survival. The early trade between China and West led to human civilizations; there was development of leadership and order, empires developed in the West such as the Iranian empire, Greek and Roman empires as well as the growth of the economy. Cities such as Petra and Palmyra in Syrian Desert developed out of a need for places to trade
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Indian Ocean Tsunami - Essay Example Proper building strategies should have promoted buildings with escape routes, cautionary system and safe places. Construction of physical barriers or dykes around the sea could have greatly reduced the effects of tsunami. Mitigation approaches could also have been applied to correct the situation. Such measures involve analysis of possible destructions from other similar occurrences. Such measures would also involve an analysis of seismic triggers to establish areas prone to an earthquake. Communication between the authority, seismologists, and the society could have helped to improve the situation as well. Such communication would be followed by recommendations and possible correction measures for any possible occurrence. Authorities in the affected areas could also have applied early warnings to the people. Such warnings would encourage the people to vacate the affected areas for safer grounds. This required the region to have a well-established transport and communication system. Physical developments on the land could also have reduced the effects of tsunami. Physical elevation of the ground, building barriers in high risk areas, drainage systems and onshore and offshore barriers might have helped to prevent damages and reduce a number of victims