Saturday, August 31, 2019
Decisions about who Is considered needy and how they are to be helped are dependent on our economic development, political views, and are often dependent on government resources (Stern & Axial, 2012). In research, primary data sources are beneficial when assisting the learner to completely understand every facet of a topic as It relates to the topic of discussion or a body of work. As it pertains to social welfare, it is vital to build a foundation which encompasses past, present and future happenings that will impact the body of work.While doing research web-sites about primary documents as it relates social welfare policy, the following site seemed useful http://www. Ass. Gob/history/PDF/heisted. PDF. The Historical Development document discusses the history of the U. S. Social Welfare structure. There is also an interactive timeline provided for the Social Security Acts and the Development of U. S. Social Security Programs. One is provided a sequential view of the progression of t he Development of U. S.Social Security Programs, such as unemployment, Public Assistance, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families In 1 996 TAN), Public Housing, National School Lunch Program and the Food Stamp Program, amongst many more programs. This tool has provided this learner an insight to the key historical, political and social events that have impacted our country. As The united States approached the sass's, the Great Depression was upon us, which resulted in our government taking a greater role in helping the poor and the establishment of the Social Security Act of 1935.As one continues to study the history of social welfare, we will began to gain a better understanding of what drives our programs as well as how we can contribute to their success. Reference: Axial, J. , & Stern, M. (2012). Social welfare: A history of the American response to need (8th deed. ). Boston, MA: Allan and Bacon. Http://www. Ass. Gob/holster/PDF/ Halsted. PDF. Web-site Search By Krishna reforms o f today. Be sure to format your citation in proper PAP format in your The history of Human Services is important for us to understand so we can grasp the goals of our current social welfare programs.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Feminism simply refers to the thought that women and men should have similar and equal rights in all fronts, be it sexually, politics, economics or civil amongst others. Though feminism efforts can be traced back to the late 19th century, intense activism can be placed at the upper quarter of the 20th century where there arose feminist movements, philosophy, theories and literature supporting equality between the genders. Indeed these movements and efforts bore fruits and are credited with the revolution that would see a flurry of laws enacted and policies aimed at opening more opportunities implemented. The recent past years have seen this change and feminist movements have become dormant and almost irrelevant, many agree that this has been brought forth by the mere fact that their grievances were addressed. Indeed feminism had genuine grievances. A look at the traditional society, and also the prevailing circumstances up to the world war period, indicates that the society was highly patriarchal. Both the unwritten and the written rules were aimed at subjugating women while elevating the position of men in all aspects. Job opportunities, politics and economics were wholly dominated by men. Women leadership was looked down upon and women roles were only limited to household chores. The Declaration of Sentiments, a document detailing grievances of women as published in 1846 during the Seneca Falls Convention, has clearly outlined these concerns indicating how inequality raged in the male dominated society be it in the marriages, economics and also in the workplaces (Estelle, 2003). The key grievances ranged from the role of women in marriages and also the pursuit of equal opportunities in the workplaces. The first wave of feminism was concentrating its efforts in rooting out inequality aimed at property rights and universal voting rights. These were accorded by the law by the first quarter of the 20th century. The second wave of liberation was radical and was pursuing injustices meted out against women revolving around cultural and political inequalities. These grievances were touching on the very foundation of marriage and sought to ensure that a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s voice and rights in marriage were respected and ensured by the law. Consequently, legislations recognizing marital rape were enacted and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in regard to divorces were also put into place. Abortion was also a key concern and resulted to intensified activism demanding for women to be allowed to take control of their sexuality and also the fate of their pregnancies. The Roe v Wade landmark court ruling that outlawed abortion was seen as a major success for feminist movements. Political and social rights were advanced. The third wave of feminism became referred to as the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Liberation and took place from the late 1970s to 1990s. This was aimed at rooting out sexism and all forms of discriminations especially in the workplaces. Women demanded laws aimed at tackling sex discrimination and abuse. This was a wave that was also aiming at rooting out the perception that feminist movements were pursuing the upper class women, it is for this reason that this movement began focusing at the issues that generally affected women such as gender based violence and the removal of gender based connotations and stereotypes (Estelle 2006). With the accomplishments of the ideals that feminism sought to achieve, there is now a general feeling that feminism has become irrelevant. As Anita (2004, 96) contends, Ã¢â¬Å"years and years ago this feminist thing was really big and people did fight for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights, and that was good. But we are equal now, so thereÃ¢â¬â¢s not that need. Ã¢â¬ This is indeed the prevailing situation; feminism has ceased to be relevance. Women have acquired rights and although still disadvantaged, have equal rights to men. The angry bra burning and men bashing activists are no longer around as their common objectives were met and the modern woman is unencumbered by the traditional feminist ties (Estelle 2006). The popular media is said to mirror the society bringing into perspective all the held perceptions and norms. A comparison of the movies that cropped up a couple of decades ago and todayÃ¢â¬â¢s movies for example indicates a stark contrast. Whereas the 80s movies gave women subtle and supportive roles, modern movies are according men and women equal roles and are portraying women playing the roles that were regarded as the preserve of men. They are also no longer seen as sex toys and objects to provide comic relief in movies and magazines but are rather playing active roles. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s women are seen as assertive in their own right but not mere props to support men, they are holding executive roles and have plunged deep into the cutthroat executive and political affairs if the recent Hillary Clintons candidature is anything to go by. They possess charisma and enough magnetic pull to carry out demanding political tasks as their men counterparts. Though sexism is yet to be eradicated, the rigorous feminist movements no longer enjoy the huge membership like they used to in the 80s, today they have taken a more integrative approach. References Anita H. (2004). All about the girl: culture, power, and identity. Routledge. Estelle B. F. (2006) Feminism, sexuality, and politics: essays. UNC Press. Estelle B. F. (2003) No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women. Ballantine Books.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Individual project 4 - Essay Example Organizational structures or models can be described as the ways through which a particular organization organizes the workforce and duties or tasks so as to remain functional thus attains her set goals. The application of the business models is dependent on the size of the work group and the size of the organization. In small organization characterized with small work groups the models are not pallid, however, in large organization the use of these structures is a must due to the existence of varied task delegations. Factors such as business employee size, revenue, geographical dispersion and the range of the business are the one's determinants of a business structure. This paper describes the various types of business models that are commonly applied by the international businesses, the reasons for their application, advantages and disadvantages of each business model. The company on which the paper lays focus on is Coca-cola, a beverage manufacturing company worldwide. Thesis Stat ement For gaining competitive advantage in the global arena organization are sourcing for talent, goods and services from other organizations. ... Each of them is described below. Global Product model Global product or product development refers to means used by an organization in maximizing her financial and operational productivity of the process itself. According to PTC white paper it involves spreading of product development activities in various regions worldwide in order to improve on the value-added cost. These activities run from marketing activities to activities such as design, analysis and new idea generation. A large and diversified company like Cadbury is organized according to the products. Here, all activities pertaining production and marketing of a product or groups of the same product are put in the same group where the top most manager of the product group is bestowed with autonomy over the operation. This means that all the personnel in the group have ample time to fully attend to their particular product line needs, hence, expertise in the lineÃ¢â¬â¢s development, production and distribution. In an effort to safeguard the process from unnecessary disruption the Cadbury allow for evolution of different units or product lines moving from one level to another towards global market distribution and finding balance between cost and added value. At level 1 there is no product development activity distribution, at level 2 some elements of product distribution is achieved but no strategy, at level 3 strategies for global product distributing are put in place with discrete supportive activities. At the fourth level the company out aggression identifies the particular sets and accompanied responsibilities to offshore Markets. Cadbury Egypt does the same for her chocolate bars by producing then sending
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
NCLB and Students with Disabilities - Research Paper Example The enactment of NCLB changed the educational landscape for students with disabilities by introducing vast changes (Peterson and West, 2003). The act gave children with disabilities access to free public education improving their educational outcomes. The act has raised awareness of poor performance of many schools and students especially those with disabilities. According to the federal law, states, schools, and communities have to collect data on student performance, broken in categories of race, and factors such as the native language and disability (Peterson and West, 2003). Public schools are faced with the greatest challenge of producing good performance raising concern for families with children in these schools. Students with disabilities have low rates of high school completion, success and graduation with diplomas in the market as opposed to those without disabilities. The dropout rates for students with disabilities are high, and most of them fail to achieve a high school diploma making their dropout rates four times higher than for those without disabilities (Peterson and West, 2003). NCLB has helped states and schools change their strategies in order to prepare students with disabilities for challenges of higher learning and economic self-sufficiency (Peterson and West, 2003). This involves evaluating the federal and state level programs and strategies that enhance educational practice. This has in turn improved the valued educational outcomes for youth with disabilities.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Hamilton summary - Term Paper Example The country has not been able to maintain commerce or command respect from other countries, which would be a major step towards safeguarding the country against encroachments (Hamilton, 298). Most significant is the poverty and disorder that threatens to tear the country apart, while it is endowed with great natural advantages. Therefore, the councils and maxims that hinder the adoption of the proposed constitution are the main obstacles towards the achievement of American union (Hamilton, 299). The maxims work towards denying US government the energy it requires, by advocating for the sovereignty of the member states. This is dangerous since it would create a situation of state alliances and rivalry against one another, demolishing the unity of the people and jeopardizing the achievements of togetherness (Hamilton, 296). There are many challenges associated with a federalist government. However, the only solution towards avoiding the creation of a League of Nations, and instead pres erve the union, is to adopt a government, which has the overall authority over the states (Hamilton,
Monday, August 26, 2019
Designing a whole school approach to the management of student behaviour - Essay Example The school is situated in beautiful surrounding and has adequate space for play and extra curricular activity. However, it is found that the material facilities were not proving enough for the success of educational goals of the school. The school was established in the year 1982. The mission of the school was to provide world class education with the aim of developing and shaping students to become complete human beings rather than just focusing on their education. The school has been doing good with the ideas and the plans that were implemented by the founders. The staff of the school is a senior staff working since the establishment and believe in following the same ideas that were implemented when the school was established. Only three teachers are new and they are efficient in their job of handling students. The staff has meetings with parents every month and the discussion mostly focuses on the performance of their children in school. The teachers used to have meetings every week with their management staff to discuss the progress of the curriculum, behavior problems in classrooms, measures for improvement and overall performance of the class. However, the solutions were never discussed. The meetings were taken in a very mechanical way and there was no fruitful interaction between the teachers and the management representatives. Teachers who have joined recently were not encouraged to share their thoughts or opinions. The classes are functioning on strict disciplinary rules and have set guidelines for behavior. The students who perform well in their studies are rewarded every month and get recognition throughout the school as their photos are published in school
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Management theories - Essay Example With new management theory so readily available, it seems that few if any of the historical theories meet our expectations today. However, in choosing one the choice here would be the Administrative Principles. This approach, at least made an attempt to focus on the total organization and today we know that each entity in an organization is important to the whole and how those entities function together is extremely important. In this particular theory, Henri Fayol (1841-1925) was the developer of the theory. There were fourteen general principles that were put into place as a part of this principle. There are truly some good things and some bad things here.(provenmodels, 2010). Division of labor: This is a method of achieving maximum efficiency through the use of specialized labor rather than just splitting people up by the technical activities they do. This is, in some ways, how a hospital works today and many other major businesses too. The division of labor is usually split up by specialty. For example, the business office, the admissions, the coders etc. Establishment of Authority: Here the true ability to make a decision and carry it out is available to the manager. Today, we call it one kind of power or another but even today, there are organizations that are unable to release this authority even to their top managers. As one reads these points, it is realized that they are all important today and we think of them as a part of one or more of the theories we study today. When the pros are thought of, one of the things that leaps out at the reader immediately is the stability of jobs. In today's world there are beginning to be short numbers of staff in many specialty fields. It is also known that training and retraining staff are very expensive (Jick, & Perpirl,, 2003). With that known, retention of staff becomes extremely important, as important today at it was then. The other pros are that unity of command remains important today as well as unity of direction. Today, we understand that it is important to assure that employees other than senior management staff are a part of strategic planning, for example. The cons are that this is a step back of course from what we know today and though the fourteen points are useful, it all seems somewhat complicated to use and they are somewhat vague in spots a nd seem a little confusing. The theory that is most
Saturday, August 24, 2019
For university approval - Personal Statement Example ering developed from the position of mechanical trainee at Qatar Petroleum and also at Qatar Petrochemical Company as mechanical technician subsequently. The diploma in mechanical engineering which I acquired from Bradford College enabled me to get a promotion. The position is from mechanical technician to mechanical specialist as I was now able fully to understand the technicality of the rotating section in the company. The enhancement was further made by attaining a position in bagging and logistic area after attaining a degree in mechanical engineering from North Umbria University for two years. It is my inclination to gain more skills and hopefully secure high rank in my employment in the oil industry by completing the degree course in mechanical engineering which I had already started. The reason to this is that the course provides more relevance in the whole process in the oil industry from rotational section to logistics
Friday, August 23, 2019
War in Iraq - Essay Example Rather, it was pursued in economic reasons. Scott (2003) cites the internally stated goal of securing the flow of oil in the Middle East. Scott refers to a report from the James A. Baker Institute of Public Policy at Rice University (April, 1997) which stated the problem of "energy security" for the US and noted that US was increasingly exposed to oil shortages in the face of the inability of oil supplies to carry on with world demand. Particularly, particular the report addressed "The Threat of Iraq and Iran" to the free flow of oil out of the Middle East. It concluded that Saddam Hussein was still a threat to Middle Eastern security and still had the military capability to exercise force beyond Iraq's borders. Scott continues that as soon as the Bush administration took office in 2001, it followed the lead of a second report from the same institute, which was co-sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, the report representing a consensus of thinking among energy experts of both political parties, and was s igned by Democrats as well as Republicans. Entitled Strategic Energy Policy Challenges for the 21st Century, the report concluded: The United States remains a prisoner of its energy dilemma. ... Therefore the US should conduct an immediate policy review toward Iraq including military, energy, economic and political/ diplomatic assessments. Following this note is the looming phenomenon known as Global "Peak Oil", which is projected to occur around 2010, with Iraq and Saudi Arabia being the final two nations to reach peak oil production. US geophysicist M. King Hubbert, who in 1956 correctly predicted U.S. oil production would peak in 1971, first illustrated this crucial concept of Peak Oil in bell-shaped curves wherein each oil field in the world follows a more or less bell-shaped curve, and the composite view of the world's thousands of oil fields is one gigantic, ragged edged looking bell-shaped curve. According to Clark (2003), once Peak Oil is reached, the supply of oil/energy will begin an irreversible decline, along with a corresponding permanent increase in price despite the presence of increasing demand from industrialized and developing nations alike. Another reason pointed out on the cause of the war was to preserve the dominance of the dollar over the world oil economy. Clark (Revisited: The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War with Iraq, 2003) on the other hand believes that the US media and government failed to report that the war itself is in large part an oil currency war. In Clark's words, "a war intended to prevent oil from being priced in euros". He cites that a core reason for the ongoing war is this US administration's goal of preventing further Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) momentum towards the euro as an oil transaction currency standard. However, in order to forestall OPEC, they need to gain geo-strategic control of Iraq along with its 2nd
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS - Essay Example This company from China which is Venetian, Macao-Resort-Hotel specifically wants to enter in the tourism Industry in Greece. Prior to its market entry in the country, there is a need to understand the whole thing about business environment especially on GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism industry. This is to take into consideration better understanding of the line of businesses to be implemented in the tourism industry in Greece. This is also to further understand things that are necessary to be done prior to the actual market entry. In particular, there is a promising area for hotels and other related businesses in GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism industry. This is one important idea that can be substantially considered in line with the consideration on what business to be conducted in Greece. In order to analyse this situation further, it is important to conduct some assessment and cultural evaluation, political considerations, social aspects and other related business-related environmental concerns. A. Business system and cultural conditions in Greece The first part of this report is about the analysis of the national business system and cultural conditions in Greece. This is in line with knowing the probable impacts of national business and cultural system in Greece on the future success of Venetian, Macao-Resort-Hotel in the country. ... The world has slowly been integrated by globalisation and especially it is heading forward to creating one important business culture for all. This is evident by how everyone is influenced by the effect of media that try to substantiate the impact of information technology. Information technology is an important tool everyday because it influences decision, planning and any other decision-making process (Vlahos and Ferratt, 1995). In many parts of Greece internet-based tourism services are widely spread (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2002). This is an indication that tourism industry has become sophisticated and there is a strong link between information technology and marketing system for tourism industry. In fact, travellers nowadays got to choose different packages in order to enjoy various destination of choice at the most convenient way of placing bookings online such as hotel reservation and other related travel activities. This is made possible becaus e of online convenience in conducting business online especially in Greece, a developed country where many travellers come and go to their destination of choice. This is a clear identification of the fact that there is a strong involvement of technology in conducting business in Greece particularly in its tourism industry. In 2000 tourism in Greece was regarded an important component of its economy due to its substantial contribution of 7% of the gross domestic product (Chatziathanassiou et al., 2004). This is a positive indication of a booming tourism industry in Greece in which such has provided positive outcome in creating identity for Greece as one of the most wonderful
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Imperialism from 1700 to 1900 Essay From 1700 to 1900, the world was expanding. Many countries took on a expansionism type known as imperialism. Countries such as England used the British East India Company to conquer parts of Asia. America used imperialism to spread their rule westward, known as Manifest Destiny. They both used this tactic as migration. During these encounters, many factors stayed the same, but also differed in some ways. In the 19th century, the Americas were finally free of British control, and decided to spread their nation westward, past the Appalachian mountains to the pacific ocean. These people who traveled were called pioneers, exploring the frontier of America. Along the way, they came across Native American civilizations and tribes. Although the Native Americans were welcoming, the pioneers took advantage of them, through their resources. They eventually lead to the endangerment of the buffalo. They depleted many other of their resources, which caused the Native Americans and pioneers to attack one another. Battles such as Little Bighorn and the Wounded Knee massacre are just two known ones. The pioneers ended up killing off many of the natives, which was known as the French and Indian war, and although many Native Americans still survived those attacks, to this day most of them are force to live on reservations. The Americans then started giving away land in the midwest, that used to be owned by these tribes. The Homestead Act encouraged people to go out west and take land given by the government. The land was typically 100 plus acres. The British initially entered India in the 18th century with the East India Company with the sole thought of its trading and financial benefits. By the beginning of the 19th century, however, ulterior motives started to appear. The British were, technically, the ruling governors of India, but before then, had only been concerned with making money. Now, however, the British began trying to expand their territory and the idea of responsible trusteeship came about. The British, along their conquests, destroyed much of Indian culture and replaced it with their own. The British did however, like the idea of the caste system in separating the people, and so let that remain in tack to remain in control of the population. India became a major trade hub in Asia due to this. British rule also modernized India, bring newÃ technologies and such there, known as cultural diffusion. And so, the Natives had to stay on their reservations while America expanded. America continued their idea of Manifest Destiny all the way to the Pacific. As for the British, the Indian culture was destroyed and changed to the British way of life.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The Need For Information Security Management Information Technology Essay Small to Medium Size Enterprises contribute greatly to the economy in many countries despite the many challenges that they face. Lesser budgeting, resource planning and time management are just some of the limitations that they might encounter. Comparing this to a larger enterprise or government body, SMEs seems to have different approaches with regards to information security, sometimes understating the importance due to the constraint mentioned. This paper aims to study the issues relating to introduction and implementation of info security regimes in SMEs compared to larger organisations. Introduction Small and medium enterprise are defined by the number of personnel working for the company, around the upper limit of 250 to the lower of 50. They usually lack resources, competencies and management to implement strategies externally and internally for their operations. This paper will focus on the implementation of information security regimes of SMEs and provide a comparison to large enterprises. The paper explores the multiple categories of information security, attempt to list the disadvantages faced by SMEs and how sometime large enterprises are unable to match a SME in the capability to respond to security threats Justifying The Need for Sound Information Security in Any Organisation The internet age brought upon new challenges to the business world, both SMEs and large organisation are continuously investing substantial resources to secure their presence on the internet. With increasingly virtualized business networks and expanding corporate ecosystem, more information have been created or converted into digital format. Digitalized information can be saved in different storage devices and transmitted over a plethora of interconnected network both internally and externally (Radding, 2012). Understandably, crime and security threats to information are becoming more commonplace as the reliance on Internet in business activities increase . Threats such as hackers, business competitors or even foreign governments can employ a host of different methods to obtain information from any organisation (Symantec). Yet no effective business would totally isolate themselves from using digitalized info to prevent such incidents; competitiveness or success of these organisations is linked to right information delivered on time. At its worst erroneous info may result in serious loss of potential earnings and damage to the organisations brand(Juhani Anttila, 2005). A significant element of information security are the cost and personnel expertise required with the designing, development and implementation of an effective security system. There is a need for major investment to be invested to build and maintain reliable, trustworthy and responsive security system (Anderson, 2001). Since most SMEs tend to have to operate under tight budgeting, extreme limited manpower and many different needs competing for limited supply of resources, thus placing information security down the priorities list (Tawileh, Hilton, Stephen, 2007). Additionally, the lack of awareness to the negative consequences of info security issues and threats and the perception of less strict regulatory compliance requirements, information and communications infrastructure within these SMEs remain highly unsecured. Despite that, most organisations do at least have some form of basic security in the form of anti-virus softwares. Other types of security software like firewall or au thentication software/hardware are considerably less popular; perhaps due to the additional complexity of having to install and configure them for the organisation usage (ABS, 2003). Linking Business Objectives with Security Incident Response Management and Disaster Recovery Incident response management is the process of managing and responding to security incidents. As organisations may encounter plenty of incidents throughout the day, it is important that incident responses are carefully managed to reduce wastage of manpower and resources. The most appropriate level of response should be assigned to on any security incident to maximize efficiency; there is no merit in involving senior management in a response to an incident that has minimal impact on business (BH Consulting, 2006) Disaster recovery is the process used to recover access to an organisations software, data and hardware that are required to resume the performance of normal, critical business functions. Typically this will happen after either a natural disaster or manmade disaster. (Disaster Recovery) Incident response management used to be separated into different entities, natural disasters , security breaches and privacy breaches were handled by risk management, information security department and legal department. This increased the cost of incident management and reduce utilization of existing resources and capabilities. By merging the 3 into one overarching incident management methodology specified with an incident response team and a charter, reduced cost and efficient usage of resource can be achieved (Miora, 2010) In larger organizations, incident response team may contain both employees and third party observers from vendors. External vendors may provide the expertise to manage an incident that could be overwhelming to the current employees. This however may not be feasible for SMEs due the financial constraints. Most likely, the incident response management team would be formed using few employees with a senior manager or director leading the team. The response team would be the ones who do the planning scenario for each different types of incident and the type of responses required, ensure that clear processes and procedures are in place so that responses to incident are coherent. Communications between members are typically standardized be it for large organisations or SMEs; method of contact such as emails and non-email like phone calls or messages are used to inform team members (BH Consulting, 2006). Disaster recovery extremely important as well, more so for SMEs. A survey from US Department of Labor provided an estimation that around 40% of business never reopen after a disaster and of the remaining around 25% will close down within 2 years (Zahorsky). Unfortunately, not many SMEs have a disaster recovery plan in place to protect themselves. This is due to the idea that disaster recovery is costly and requires alot of resources and expertise to put in place one. This is true to a certain extend as large organisations normally spend amounts to put in place backup servers and remote hot recovery sites. However with increasing cloud-based technologies and availability of server virtualization, disaster recovery can become affordable even for SMEs. Up and coming cloud solution and renting space in secure data center via colocation are some of the solutions that SMEs can consider. Even without any or little IT staff, by paying the colocation provider they can assist to manage the set up and maintenance services (Blackwell, 2010). Linking Business Objectives with Security
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
An Introduction to the airline industry The airline industry is a very competitive market, in the past 2 decades the industry have expanded and still expanding its routes domestic and globally in the beginning airline industry was partly government owned but in the recent years many privatization with airline industry have taken place. D E L A G (Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Akiengesellschaft ) the first worlds first airline which was on the 16 November 1909 this airline was started mainly with the government owned/assistance this airship manufacturers were the Zeppelin Corporation and their head quarters was in Frankfurt. The two Americans named Rufus and Marriott tried to start the Americas first airline but the attempts were failed due to the airline catching fire. The five airline which was first started still exist these airlines are the oldest ones. KLM its the Netherlands owned, Avianca airlines owned by the Columbia. Qantas is Australians, Czech Airlines operated by the Czech Republic, Mexican Airlines by the Mexico. A fter the world wars there was some inventions have been made and the demand for new planes the designs and the techniques have greatly constructed and soon after the world wars the air rout throughout the Europe have been set up since the past 15 years the airline route have became a baggiest necessity of both business and common peoples that it is hard to live without the air travel the main pros for the Air travel is it reduces time and making the peoples to visit world in the affordable time. The airline industry can be categorized into four different and main Operations International: This service take more than130 passengers and have them and can take anywhere in the world. In this category the business have its revenue for at least $ 1bn. National: In this category it can take the passengers up to 150 and the business have its revenue for from $100 m $1bn Regional: The small companies which mainly focus on the flights with quick halts and the revenue of this business is less than $ 100 m. Cargo: The main focus of these airlines is to carry goods. Emirates (airline) introduction and its growth: Emirates airline is the major airline of the UAE and it is the subsidiary of the Emirates group it is also the national airline of the UAE (Dubai) its major operations is from the Dubai International Airport. It was founded in the year 25th October 1985 The Hub of the Emirates airlines operates its services to the ninety six (96) destinations and about 56 countries and covering around 6 continents. The company also operates the worlds longest flights to New York, los angles and other two states in Unites States of America including Houston (Texas) the cargo services of this airline is operated by the Emirates Cargo services Division at present the Emirates group has more than 40,000 Employees Employed and it is the one of the top 10 world class airlines in the world. Emirates group as a new and young company faces problems back in 1980s when the gulf airways cut down its flights to Dubai the rescue of help from the Dubai royal family invested $10 million in order to begin, the head of the airlines was sheikh Ahmad Bin Saeed al Makhtoom and he is also the present chairman since then the airlines have made its growth in the fleet and also have expanded its destinations. Emirates Airlines Growth and Incorporation: Emirates group have made tremendous efforts to grow since 1990, research shows that Emirates is one of the fastest growing airline in the world since the Emirates group have made partnership with AA (American Airlines) in 1994 it started providing the world class service to the passengers throughout the world soon after the partnership Emirates revenue turned to $634 M in the end of 2004, then after the airlines ordered 7 new Boeing 777 in 1996 costs about $1 Billion. In May 1998 Emirates enter into the agreement with Sri Lankan Air Lines to manage the airlines for 10 year In the year 2008 Emirates launched its nonstop flight to New York. In the year 2010 Emirates group have launched its flights to many new destinations in UK, Paris, Bangkok, Australia, and Saudi Arabia Do you agree with performance linked reward system? Summarize the recent trends of reward system in your organization or the organization you have chosen. Discuss its impact on productivity in your organization Performance linked reward system: The most important way to impress employees is only by reward to share the profits and allow them incentives by paying them bonuses the theory of reward system says that this is the way the employees will share in your dream when you fulfill their dream. The mechanism of this system can make this possible. The reward system is not just paying the bonuses and letting employees shares in the stock options. It is more likely to do with promotions, benefits and other incentives which can motivate employees unfortunately many companies do not offer this which leads to the failure of their organization so all the employers and I should agree with the reward system to sustain in the market with the competitors. (Donna Dee prose P: 33) The basic principle of reward system is that, you get what you reward the Employees. The main principle of management is things are done quickly if you reward the Employees, they shows positive attitude towards their works and their behavior changes if you reward them for their work. If you set a certain target for the employees and when they achieve it reward them immediately failure to do so will affect the results in the future and never hold behind the employees rewards. Therefore the main principle of motivation is by providing rewards and every organization should agree with this system for a successful organization. Benefits in working with airline industry (Emirates): Individuals interested in finding a job which can provide a good career prospects which will provide the option to travel the entire world and enjoying all the benefits as a part of the Emirates group then its hard to find the better industry than airlines and specially working for the Emirates one of the worlds best flight. There are number of benefits packages for the employees and career development programmers the group provides. In the further studies about the airline industry in the Unites States Of America there are nearly 100 airlines and 500,000 peoples are employed by them many of the positions provide excellent benefit packages, Emirates as world class airlines travels to providing services in 56 countries and expected to be added more in 2010 creates more job opportunities than the USA and runs a great reward system. Emirates Group: Emirates Group as a world class airline provides a very wide range generous benefits to the permanent employees who are employed globally. The group follows a detailed research and analysis on compensation and benefits policies by doing so the group can retain the top talented employees. This case study provides the understanding of the total benefits working for the Emirates, the reward system the company includes the cash and non cash elements. The Summary explains the basic elements of the Emirates group reward for the employees, this explanation for the compensation and reward system provides the information for the candidates working for the emirates group depending on what are their role and the unique skills and personality. The Najm award scheme is the reward and recognition program me of the Emirates Group. The Najm (Star in Arabic) recognizes, motivates and awards employees that either display exceptional behavioral competencies (going the extra mile) or identifies organizational improvements (enhanced safety, reduced cost or improved revenue) Cash elements rewards in emirates group Competitive salary and progression through salary range Emirates employees enjoy the competitive salary into cash; depending on the country they like E.g. The employees working in Dubai and K.S.A enjoy the tax free salary per month and rest all countries pays the normal tax depending on their countys legislations. Salaries are paid depending on their role and knowledge and specialization that the candidate can input into the role, the group carries a research with the relevant businesses and reviews on regular basis in order to remain competitive in providing the rewards to their employees. Employees receives the increase in salary range by the company when the responsibilities have been increased it is provided to keep employees motivates as money is a biggest motivator and used to divert route of employees to a desirable direction. Allowances The Group provides the accommodation for their employees or they give out the allowances for accommodation and it also provides the transport allowance or transport. The candidates in specific roles are only eligible for this role. Profit share schemes The company runs the profit share schemes to the employees depending on the financial statements of the group. Protection in exchange rate scheme The employees who works in the UAE their 50% of the salary is protected against adverse exchange rate towards dirham and your currency classification Professional allowance For the employees who possess the specialization skills company runs the scheme of recognizing their talents. Non Cash elements rewards in Emirates Group Annual leave The company provides 30 days of the annual leave excluding the public holidays. The annual leave will increase depending on the length of service. Gratuity/pension schemes Company runs a gratuity/pension schemes depending of the labor law rules and regulations of the country they work/ live in. For example in UK, if an employee signs up for the pensions Schemes Company deducts certain amount and pays monthly pension after the retirement age. The UAE labor law the employees are provided a gratuity on the end of service. This type of service is available to the candidates depending of the conditions like of employment and circumstances. Free holiday tickets Free holidays tickets are provided to the employees and their dependants/family for the destinations of their holiday and also runs schemes that employees can buy a ticket for the families and friends on the discounted fare. Education allowances Company provides financial support for their employees towards their tuition fees for the employees who are on senior positions to train them to requisite job skills besides these childrens of employees are allowed to claim the education allowance for the time of entire time of service. Insurance Insurances like Medical, Dental, life and Accident are provided to the employees throughout the length of service they are with the company. Provident funds On leaving the company employees are provided the provident fund that they have been saving throughout the service company decides either to pay the Gratuity or provident fund whichever is the higher the provident fund is like the long time savings of an employee with the company employee have to contribute 5% and company inputs 12% of the basic salary. Emirates card Emirates employees enjoy the privilege of being an emirates employee they can enjoys the benefits throughout the 1000s of outlets of the emirates group in UK and around the world. . Additional reward system in Emirates Group Ã Recognition reward from supervisors Employees with emirates enjoys the rewards from the supervisors when they feel the value of the candidate that they are performing consistently this the simple way to say thanks by words or by writing a thanks giving letter or by providing them an appraisal.
Monday, August 19, 2019
1- BIOGRAFIA 1887 Nace en El Pireo. Hijo de Petros Pikionis y Maria Syriotis. 1908 Se gradÃ ºa en la Universidad Tecnica Nacional, con el tÃ tulo de Ingieniero Civil. En Munich, estudia dibujo a mano alzada y escultura. Cezanne lo conduce a Paris. 1909/ Vive en ParÃ s 1912 Vuelve a Grecia. Pinta y completa su educaciÃ ³n en Arquitectura. Realiza dibujos de la Arquitectura popular de Aegina. 1921 Construye su primera casa, intentando implementar as ideas que ha formulado en ese tiempo. Casa F.Moraitis, en Ã¢â¬âtzitzifies, Neo Faliro (posteriormente demolida). 1925 Construye su segunda casa. Casa Karamanos, en la calle Irakleiou 1 (posteriormente demolida). 1929 Pasa tres meses en el estudio sobre el terreno de la Arquitectura popular en Chios, con el proposito de producir un ensayo en francÃ ©s sobre la Arquitectura urbana de la isla. 1932 Obra: Escuela Primaria de Pefkakia, el Licabetto. 1935 DespuÃ ©s de este momento, ocurre un cambio en sus conceptos estÃ ©ticos: piensa en las maneras de combinar un espÃ ritu universal con uno nacional. Todos sus proyectos arquitectÃ ³nicos estarÃ ¡n basados en este concepto. Obras: Escuela Experimental de TesalÃ ³nica. Bloque de Apartamentos en la calle Heyden. 1935/ Publica el periÃ ³dico Ã¢â¬Å"El tercer ojoÃ¢â¬ , con Hatzikyriakaos-Ghikas. 1941 Nacimiento de su quinta hija, Agni, la menor. 1943 Es elegido como Profesor Titular de la Universidad TÃ ©cnica nacional. 1949 Participa, junto a estudiantes de la Universidad, en un viaje educativo por Egipto. Obras: Casa y Estudio para la escultora F.Efthymiadou (calle Grypari 10, Patisia). 1950/ Participa, junto a estudiantes de la Universidad, en un viaje educativo por Constantinopla, Paris, Italia y Alemania. 1957 Aixioni: dibujos para un modelo de asentamiento griego de casas. Obras: Hotel Xenia Delfos. Residencia C. Potamianos, Filothei. Tratamiento del paisaje de Ã ¡rea arqueologica alrededor de la AcrÃ ³polis y de las colinas de Philopappus. PabellÃ ³n del Turista, en San Demetrius Loumbardiaris. 1958 Se retira, despÃ ©s de haber eseÃ ±ado durante treinta y cinco aÃ ±os en la Universidad TÃ ©cnica Nacional. 1961 Es elegido, por unanimidad, miembro de la Academia de Bella Artes de Munich. Obras: Casa A. Garis, Psychiko. SupervisiÃ ³n de planos y de la ConstrucciÃ ³n del Jardin de Juegos para niÃ ±os, Filothei. 1966 Pasa ocho meses en Estados Unidos, debido al estado de salud de su esposa. Reside en Boston y visita Nueva York. 1968 Muere en Atenas, 28 de Agosto. 2- TEORIA Y PENSAMIENTO La arquitectura de Pikionis esta determinada por el lugar y la historia. Pikionis entiende la arquitectura como la modificaciÃ ³n de la naturaleza que el hombre produce al asentarse en esta, no pretende naturalizar las formas de la arquitectura sino una vinculaciÃ ³n entre la arquitectura, pasado y paisaje. - PASADO E HISTORIA: frente a la ideologÃ a del movimiento moderno dominante de su Ã ©poca, Pikionis fue un arquitecto innovador que fue capaz de relacionar historia y tradiciÃ ³n y ponerlas en valor en su Ã ©poca.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
What makes a person what they are? Why does a person do what they do? Where does personality come from and how does it grow? These are some frequently asked questions when discussing the topic of personality. The latter of the questions is actually an answer in itself. Personality does originate from a specific point, and from then on it continues to grow and become exponentially more complex. This core point from which personality begins and the growth of it will be discussed in the sections to follow, but first we must look at certain assumptions that are commonly made when developing a personality theory. Assumptions The first of these assumptions concerns whether one believes that the behaviors, any type of action, a person exhibits are produced by conscious choices and decisions, also known as free will, or "determined" by forces beyond one's control. I believe in the free will explanation, but not the type of free will commonly imagined. Humans do ultimately have the power to choose their actions, however the extreme influence of other factors, such as heredity, environment, and learned behaviors, may make it seem like a persons actions were predetermined. For example, if a starving people were put into positions where they could either eat a Subway turkey round placed in front of them or just sit there and stare and stare at it, common sense shows that these people would eat. However, it is possible that one person, like an anorexic, would just sit and stare at the sandwich. For that reason, it can be assumed that human beings do have free will, however the choices made are greatly impacted and seemingly determined by inherited basic needs, environment, and learned behaviors. This leads us into a second assumption, rationalism or irrationalism. Do human beings operate primarily on the basis of intellect, or on the basis of impulses and passions? The answer is the latter theory. Going back to the Subway example, the most likely decision on whether or not to eat the turkey round would be based on an irrational impulse in one's subconscious. The basic physiological need of food has a profound influence on the given choice. But note that this is only the most likely response and not a definite one. There is always the chance that a person could make a conscious, rational decision not to eat. Because a people ultimately do have some sort of a conscious decision over their actions, it cannot be assumed that behavior is solely determined by irrational impulses.
The definition of a world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world." The First World War was a unique even, because such thing has never happened before in history. Today it is still a topic discussed in details. The causes of the First World War are many, among which the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo. Other causes were the alliance systems and the nationalism . During the years before the war, a "system of secret alliances" was formed in Europe. The whole point for creating these alliances was maintaining peace throughout Europe. Everybody thought that if countries join forces together, there will be no point for a country to declare war on another. Should this happen, however, both countries will be protected from their allies. This "perfect" on first sight system did not really work well. In fact this is how the war started. Austria - Hungary declared war on Serbia, but both countries had other nations protected World War I was supposed to be the war to end all wars, so how was it that America had to yet again fight in what is considered our world?s second war? Throughout time fuel kept on being added to the fire and America found themselves in what is now called World War II. It seems funny to say that the very thing that ended World War I actually caused the second World War. The Treaty Of Versailles marked the end of World War I but not all countries were satisfied with this. The Germans thought it was unbalanced and unfair to them. Hitler detested the treaty by creating a military and occupying its surrounding neighbors, including Austria-Hungary. Germany continued to take over Czechloslovokia due to its strength in minerals. England and France watched as all this was happening becoming more and more angry. Then England and France decided to declare war if Hitler took over Poland. Another thing that sparked the beginning of World War II was something called militarism. Countries figured that if they provided themselves with a strong military that it would solve their economic problems. Germany started to develop an air force along with a fleet of submarines called U-Boats and battle ships. Along with this, Germany blamed the jewish people for the economic problems there. What Really Happened in World War 1 and 2 :: essays research papers The definition of a world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world." The First World War was a unique even, because such thing has never happened before in history. Today it is still a topic discussed in details. The causes of the First World War are many, among which the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo. Other causes were the alliance systems and the nationalism . During the years before the war, a "system of secret alliances" was formed in Europe. The whole point for creating these alliances was maintaining peace throughout Europe. Everybody thought that if countries join forces together, there will be no point for a country to declare war on another. Should this happen, however, both countries will be protected from their allies. This "perfect" on first sight system did not really work well. In fact this is how the war started. Austria - Hungary declared war on Serbia, but both countries had other nations protected World War I was supposed to be the war to end all wars, so how was it that America had to yet again fight in what is considered our world?s second war? Throughout time fuel kept on being added to the fire and America found themselves in what is now called World War II. It seems funny to say that the very thing that ended World War I actually caused the second World War. The Treaty Of Versailles marked the end of World War I but not all countries were satisfied with this. The Germans thought it was unbalanced and unfair to them. Hitler detested the treaty by creating a military and occupying its surrounding neighbors, including Austria-Hungary. Germany continued to take over Czechloslovokia due to its strength in minerals. England and France watched as all this was happening becoming more and more angry. Then England and France decided to declare war if Hitler took over Poland. Another thing that sparked the beginning of World War II was something called militarism. Countries figured that if they provided themselves with a strong military that it would solve their economic problems. Germany started to develop an air force along with a fleet of submarines called U-Boats and battle ships. Along with this, Germany blamed the jewish people for the economic problems there.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Conformity affects oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. There are two primary reasons why individuals conform. First, people conform due to informational social influence. What this means is that people rely on othersÃ¢â¬â¢ judgment about an ambiguous situation and use such judgment in choosing a particular course of action. The second reason is normative social influence. This refers to conforming simply to be accepted. Conformity is a big issue in most peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. In my case, there has been numerous times wherein I relied on other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment to make a certain decision. The very simple example is determining what hair style would suit me best. I have consulted and asked for advice from my friends and family for this very simple matter. I could not decide for myself and I had to rely on their judgment. Another case wherein informational social influence was a factor for me was when I was deciding which course to take. To me, such decision seemed very confusing. There were too many options. Thus, I needed to consult my parents. I asked them their opinion and ended up following what it was they advised me to do. Informational social influence is very evident in society particularly in advertising. Companies use advertisements wherein they promote their product by showing surveys conducted that show their product as the preferred choice of the majority. This is meant to influence consumers to follow suit. Most people would think, Ã¢â¬Å"If most people choose this, then it must be the best choice.Ã¢â¬ In other words, they leave their judgment to other people. This is a very good demonstration of how informational social influence affects the decision making and behavior of individuals. In the case of the second reason for conformity, normative social influence, I have had several experiences wherein it played a factor in my behavior at the given time. This was especially true during my teenage years. When I was a teenager, I felt the need to fit in. I wanted to be among the popular kids at school. In order to be among the popular crowd, I tried to do everything that the popular ones did. I dressed as I saw them dress, I talked and acted as they did. However, I noticed that the more I tried to be like them, the more they seemed to be distant. More importantly, my real friends and my family began to question me as to why I was doing things that were unexpected of me. As I grew older and matured, I began to realize that not only were my attempts in vain, they were ridiculous and unnecessary. Nowadays, every time I look back on those days, I cannot help but to laugh. Ã¢â¬Å"Fitting inÃ¢â¬ is a big problem for most teenagers. That is why most teenagers get into various kinds of trouble. Some teenage girls get pregnant at a very early age simple because they thought that losing their virginity would make them more welcomed in the popular crowd. On the other hand, boys end up joining gangs as they search for a sense of belongingness. Drugs and alcohol also are common problems that teenagers face because of their wanting to fit in and be accepted by their peers. Basically, this is where the concept of peer pressure comes in. Peer pressure is simply the result of normative social influence. Teenagers feel the pressure from their friends to do certain things. They feel that if they do not do as what their peers do, they will end up being scorned and laughed at. For a teenager, humiliation is a big drawback. This is the reason why teenagers end up changing their behavior simply to be accepted by others.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Americans with Disabilities Act The Americans with Disabilities Act Overview of the ADA of 1990 including its intended purpose, and what governmental agency oversees ADA claims The Americans with Disability Act (ADA) of 1990 was enacted by the United States Congress, signed into law by George H. W. Bush on July 26, 1990, and amended in 2009 where some changes were introduced to the act. ADA is a civil rightsÃ¢â¬â¢ law that was intended to check against discrimination that can be encountered by disabled persons in the course of accessing certain services or taking part in day-to-day activities. It safeguards disabled persons against any form of bias or prejudice with respect to their condition. Whatever falls under category of disability is normally made on case-to-case basis. However, current substance abuse and visual impairment that can be remedied by lenses are not considered as disabilities by the ADA of 1990. The law was initially intended to guarantee civil right protection for people who were permanently disabled and their disabilities could not be reversed or weakened. The law was enacted enable disable persons access services enjoyed by persons who are not disabled thereby opening their horizons to all types of careers. The drafters wanted the law to be flexible to guard against eminent weakening by future case laws. To enable disabled persons enjoy equal rights with everyone else, President G. W. Bush signed ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) into law on September 2008 (Matt, 1). Title I of the ADA 1990 deals with employment. It empowers people with disability with requisite qualifications to seek for employment in covered entities. People with disabilities can be hired, discharged, compensated, and trained just like any other worker without being discriminated. Agencies that are covered by the law include an employment agencies, labor organizations, and labor management committees. As per Title I, discrimination entails restricting job application in a manner contrary to convention, preventing qualified persons people from applying or taking up job opportunities, or making irrational and illegal job requirements to limit persons with disabilities. If entrance medical examinations have to be done, everybody else should be subjected to the process and the medical records must be treated with a lot of confidentiality. This title does not offer protection to individuals currently engaged in illegal use of drugs (Matt, 1). Title II of the Act deals with Public entities. This title prohibits any form of discrimination that can be met on the people with disability by public entities at local and state levels. Access here implies both physical and pragmatic access. It is supposed to check against discriminatory policies instituted by such public entities. It applies to public transportation that public entities offer (Matt, 1). Title III captures public accommodation and commercial facilities. The title criminalizes discrimination based on disability with special focus on full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, or accommodations of any public accommodation by the proprietors, leasers, or operators. Public accommodation here means recreational facilities, lodgings, transportation, educational, and places of public displays. Under this title, all new constructions have to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines anchored in the Code of Federal Regulations. This title also applies to existing facilities. Exemptions to the regulation provided in the title include private clubs and religious organizations. However, historical properties and other public and private buildings must comply with the provisions of this title and failure may lead to legal proceedings. However, if following usual standards threaten to destroy historical significance of the feature of the building, they are under obligation to use other standards (Matt, 2). Title IV of the ADA deals with telecommunications. This title amended the Communications Act of 1934. All telecommunication companies are required to cater for the needs of the disabled especially the deaf and those with speech impairment (Matt, 3). Title V of ADA deals with miscellaneous provisions that are basically technical provisions. It also includes anti-retaliation or coercion provisions. Many government agencies act in concert to ensure that the ADA of 1990 is implemented. The United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission presides over employment related ADA provisions. The Department of Transportation regulates statutes related transportation. Other agencies include United States Department of Agriculture, Department of labor, Department of Education, United States Department of Interior, United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, United States Department of Health and Human Services, and Federal Communications Commission (Matt, 4). Statutory definition of Ã¢â¬Å"disabilityÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable accommodationÃ¢â¬ under the ADA of 1990 The ADA Act of 1990 defines disability as an impairment that substantially limits major life activity. ADA defines impairment as a physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, anatomical, neurological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive losses. The Act further defines impairment as a mental or psychological disorder. Nevertheless, the explanations of impairment under the ADA regulation do not include physical traits, common personality traits, cultural and economic aspects as these elements come naturally and cannot be altered by man (Matt, 1). The Act excludes certain statutory requirements while trying to define disability like those currently using illegal drugs. Emotional acts such as thought, focus, and making contact with others also make up major life activities in reference to the EEOC. The phrase substantially limits features in the ADA definition of disability. An impairment on qualifies to be a disability if it limits life activities. For an impairment to be referred to as a disability, a person must be meaningfully limited in his or her competency to undertake certain activities relative to the average person drawn from the general public. Some of the very essential aspects to consider in this area are nature and extent of the disability, the time interval that the persons has been disabled, and how the impairment affects the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to partake in everyday tasks (Acemoglu and Angrist 920). Reasonable accommodation in the ADA of 1990 protects persons with disabilities by ensuring that other than provision of physical access to buildings and provision of equal access to programs and services, this category of citizens access auxiliary services, aids, and removal of barriers in public utilities provided that this does not create undue administrative or financial burdens. The ADA 1990 defines reasonable ccommodation to entail Ã¢â¬Å"making existing facilities used by employees readily accessible and usable by disabled persons, job restructuring, part time or modified work schedules, re-advertisement to vacant person, acquisition or modification of equipment or devices and appropriate adjustment or modification of examinationÃ¢â¬ (Matt, 5). Discuss the Supreme Court's decisions in Sutton and Toyota Manufacturing In WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢s case, The Supreme Court visited the question of severity of a condition that qualifies it to be a protected disability. The Supreme Court held that the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s medical condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome was not a disability because it was not substantially limiting. It was further stated that for an impairment to be referred to as a disability, it has to prevent or severely restrict a person from undertaking in tasks that are of essential value to a person in everyday life. The court underscored the need for strict interpretation of the phrase Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢substantially limits. Ã¢â¬â¢ The ruling in WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢s case brought into fore the inability of ADA to accommodate cases characterized by dismissal of many disability cases (Raddatz, 2). In Sutton v. United Airlines, the plaintiff sued for discriminative acts by a potential employer. In the case, the plaintiffs were two twin myopic sisters who had applied for employment as commercial pilots but their request was rejected because they did not attain the minimum value for uncorrected eyesight. The Supreme Court held that the question of whether somebody is disabled and thus be protected by ADA must be looked at with reference to all mitigating measures. For instance, if a person is severely limited in undertaking day-to-day activities without medical intervention but is only slightly limited to undertaking these tasks after medical interventions, the medical intervention serves to negate the impairment from being referred to as a disability as outlined in the ADA (Raddatz, 1). The ADAAA of 2008 including its intended purpose and significant changes from the ADA of 1990 The ADAAA 2008 is an Act of the Congress that went into operation on January 1, 2009. It amended the ADA of 1990 and other nondiscrimination laws that were drafted for the good of people with disability at state and federal levels. The amendment was introduced with respect to myriad Supreme Court rulings on ADA 1990. THE Supreme Court decisions were viewed by the members of the United States Congress as limiting the rights of people with disabilities (Schall, pp. 192). The ADAAA indeed reversed those decisions. With respect to ADA Title I, ADAAA changed the definition of disability. It clarified and broadened its definition. One notable contribution of this amendment is to take into consideration of both the employer and employee. With ADAAA 2008, courts are expected to interpret ADA and other Federal disability non-discrimination laws and determine whether the covered entity has discriminated. This law preserves the original meaning definition of law as written in the ADA but alters the way that statutory term should be construed (Matt, 5). Legal analysis of Billy and Mandy's requests applying both the ADA and ADAAA Based on the Americans with Disability Act of 1990, MandyÃ¢â¬â¢s request should not be honored because she is not substantially limited in her daily activities without using medical interventions like consulting an optician to initiate corrective measures to remedy far sightedness. However, with the ADAAA, her request should be granted because the Act prohibits consideration of medication and low vision devices in determining whether a condition is a disability. Billy BeerÃ¢â¬â¢s request has to be granted because according to the Reasonable Accommodation and from the definition of disability in Title I, BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s condition is covered and indeed considered a disability. Moreover, ADAAA prioritizes discrimination initiated by covered entity as opposed to whether the person seeking protection under law has impairment that fits the statutory definition of disability. Works Cited Acemoglu, Daron and Angrist, Joshua D. Consequences of Employment Protection? The Case of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Journal of Political Economy 109(6), 2001, 915Ã¢â¬â957. Matt, Susan. Reasonable Accommodation: What does the Law Really Require. Journal of the Association of Medical Professionals with hearing Loses, 1(1), 2003, 1-13 Raddatz, Alissa. ADA Amendments overrule Supreme Court Decisions on What Constitutes Disability. 2009. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. Schall, Carol M. The Americans with Disabilities ActÃ¢â¬âAre We Keeping Our Promise? An Analysis of the Effect of the ADA on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 10(9), 1998, 191-203.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËParents are the primary cause of disturbed and disturbing behaviour in their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢ this essay will look at evidence for and against this claim. It will start by explaining the meaning of the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëdisturbed and Ã¢â¬Ëdisturbing behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢ and then move on to explain the role that parents play in the cause of Ã¢â¬ËdisturbedÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËdisturbingÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour within their children. In the past theorists would have agreed with this phrase, having good evidence to support their theories. Nevertheless this is now considered by many to be a naive view of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. The essay will look at three different models, the medical model, the social environment model and the transactional model. It will conclude by looking at the role of the child in the process and looking at whether there is conclusive evidence to support this claim. There is a large minority of children who find certain circumstances difficult to adjust to and because of this; their behaviour is considered by others to be difficult, withdrawn, disturbed or even bizarre. Parents of these children may describe them as being Ã¢â¬Ëhard to manageÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËdemandingÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËaggressiveÃ¢â¬â¢. People who work with these children for example teachers or health care workers could consider them to have Ã¢â¬Ëbehavioural problemsÃ¢â¬â¢. The expression Ã¢â¬ËdisturbedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëdisturbing behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢ is very unclear, it can have several meanings at one time. One suggestion could be that the child is the victim of incompetent or abusive parenting. Then another suggestion is that the child is the cause of the problem with behaviour that needs to be contained. What is meant by a Ã¢â¬ËproblemÃ¢â¬â¢? Ã¢â¬ËChildhood signs of psychological abnormality are, by and large, manifestations of behavioural, cognitive and emotional responses common to all children. Their quality of being dysfunctional lies in their inappropriate intensity, frequency and persistence (Herbert, 1991, p. 13). Children are said to present problems when their behaviour falls out of the range of tolerance and age-appropriateness. That range maybe more or less wide depending both on the context and the attitudes of those making such judgments. To put it bluntly, many children are only seen as having problems when they become a problem to others. So, whose problem is it? Where does the problem reside (Chapter, 2, p. 63)? Individuals have different perspectives of the Ã¢â¬ËproblemÃ¢â¬â¢. From the medical view the problem might be described in terms of Ã¢â¬ËdisordersÃ¢â¬â¢ which locates the problem firmly within the child as part of their psychological make-up. The approach to treatment was to prescribe medication or psychotherapy. This model was very prevalent during the 40Ã¢â¬â¢s and 50Ã¢â¬â¢s which came under much criticism. Emotional and behavioural difficulties were not considered within the medical model. The social environment model was careful not to put labels like Ã¢â¬ËdisturbedÃ¢â¬â¢ on to the child. As the medical model focuses the problem within the child the social environment model sees the problem as being outside the child for example a poor home situation, incompetent or abusive parental care or inadequate discipline at school. BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of maternal deprivation is a good illustration of this perspective, which was highly influential in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s in the construction of post-war social policy on the functions of the family and especially the role of women, as mothers, in promoting childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental health (Chapter, 2, p. 8). Referring to children and their behaviour there is a very common phrase used in everyday life Ã¢â¬ËI blame it on the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢. This spanned many generations believing that the explanation for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s bad or disruptive behaviour lay firmly within the home environment and the quality of parenting. Believing this removed the attention from the child themselves and the role that they might play in their behaviour and it also removed the attention from society and its responsibility for the welfare of the child. Most importantly, this belief is not just a feature of a particular ideology; it has become a foundation stone for some psychological theories about the processes of typical and disturbed development (Chapter 2 Pg 69). Kessen (1979) alerts us to the fact that some ideologies masquerade as psychological knowledge, information which is extremely important when taking into account research links between mother and child relationships and the development of disturbed behaviour. Many studies have suggested that disturbed/disturbing behaviour in children can be related to difficulties in the relationships with their mothers, which may reflect the mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ mental states (Murray and Stein, 1991; Garver, 1997; Wakschlag and Hans, 1999; Halligan et al. , 2004). Maternal responsiveness is important to an infant as is a mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ mind-mindedness (the ability to know what is going on in their infants mind) but this sensitive response can be affected by different factors. One example would be postnatal depression. A study done by Murray (1992) found that 18-month-old infants whose mothers had suffered from postnatal depression were more likely to be assessed as Ã¢â¬Ëinsecurely attachedÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Ã¢â¬Ëstrange situationÃ¢â¬â¢. This was more prevalent in boys. Insecure attachment has been consistently linked with psychological difficulties (Greenberg et al. , 1993; Sund and Wichstrom, 2002). Murray also found that children of depressed mothers were more likely to have difficulties such as temper tantrums, eating problems, have trouble sleeping and be over clinging. This could suggest that infant temperament may also be causing problems. However not all depressed mothers develop difficulties in their relationships with their offspring (Cox et al. , 1987). Although maternal depression is one pathway to behavioural difficulties there is another; research has been carried out which traces the origins of antisocial behaviour to harsh and inconsistent discipline and ineffective parental control strategies which unwittingly reinforce the childÃ¢â¬â¢s negative, coercive behaviour (chapter, 2, P. 73). In disturbed relationships the people involved not only behave towards each other but they also think about each other. They both have an internal working model of the relationship which means that the cognitive as well as the social and emotional dimensions of the relationship need to be taken into account. In an Australian large-scale longitudinal study they found that mothers who had negative attitudes towards their infants at 6 months old were more likely to report behaviour problems when their children were 5 years old, especially for boys (Bor et al. 2003). The fathers also have a role in care giving. A fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s child-rearing beliefs, working hours, personality and age predicted fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ care giving activities. Fathers were more likely to assume care giving responsibilities if they had more positive personalities and were younger. They also assumed more care giving responsibilities when they contributed lower proportions of family income and were employed for fewer hours. Also marital intimacy predicted fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ care giving activities with fathers more involved when mothers reported more imitate marriages (Research summary 3, chapter, 2, p. 6). Much of the research which has explored fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ roles in shaping childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour has focused on the relationship between antisocial behaviour in fathers and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. There is now strong evidence that there is a significant relationship between the two (Deklyen et al. 1998; Margolin and Gordis, 2000; Jaffee et al. 2003). Absence or low involvement of the father has been shown to be associated with poor outcomes for children (Scott, 1998; Carlson and Corcoran, 2001). Research shows that a fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement at age 7 protected against psychological maladjustment in adolescents from disrupted families. For boys, early father involvement protected against later delinquency as measured by the childÃ¢â¬â¢s history of trouble with the police (Flouri and Buchanan, 2002) and for girls, father involvement at aged 16 protected against subsequent psychological distress (Flouri and Buchanan, 2003). Many studies have focused only on the amount of father involvement, neglecting the quality of the relationship (Research summary 4 pg 77). Although it is important to acknowledge the role of the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s adjustment we need to recognise that the child also has a role in the process. Attitudes about some styles of parenting as being the cause of atypical child behaviour, reflects a Ã¢â¬Ësocial environmentÃ¢â¬â¢ perception seeing the child as a passive victim of circumstances. Traditional questioning of the effects of environmental variables on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development and adjustment has been challenged through various researches. In a report from a study carried out by Sears et al. they offered a Ã¢â¬Ësocial environmentÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretation, arguing that it was the combination of parentÃ¢â¬â¢s permissiveness and punitiveness that caused their children to become aggressive. A highly permissive style means that children do not have clear guidance on appropriate behaviour, where as a highly punitive style means that, at the same time, they may have been frustrated by bouts of severe punishment (chapter, 2, p. 79). Bell (1968) argued persuasively for changing the direction of effect. He maintained that it was the childÃ¢â¬â¢s temperamental characteristics that determined how aggressive he or she was and that it is the parental disciplinary approach that attempts to adapt the childÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. Johnston et al. Ã¢â¬â¢s research illustrates the dangers of presuming particular directions of causality. It would be wrong to assume that environmental risk factors would be in some sense causing childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. There could be some circumstances where the characteristics of the child could add to family stress, changing parental attitudes and influencing maternal behaviour. The relative influence of parenting behaviour versus child behaviour will vary, according to the characteristics of the child and of the parent and the circumstances affecting both (chapter, 2, p. 80). It is clear that children can have both direct and indirect influences on their environment. Children and environments can also share transactional relationships. Consider a child who is easily upset and also hard to soothe, the so called Ã¢â¬ËdifficultÃ¢â¬â¢ temperament. Such a child with a parent who has a good social support network an a well-provided home and is relatively easily able to Ã¢â¬ËcontainÃ¢â¬â¢ the childÃ¢â¬â¢s distress and minimise upsetting experiences, may end up experiencing only brief and infrequent periods of upset and evoking a lot of supportive, sensitive care giving from Ã¢â¬Ëthe environmentÃ¢â¬â¢. The same child, however, might evoke a very different kind of care giving in a more stressed household with a parent who is less able to behave sensitively and protectively and reacts to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s distress in overly emotional ways. Thus environments can differ in their reactivity to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour (Method and Skills Handbook pg 41). Chess and Thomson introduced the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëgoodness of fitÃ¢â¬â¢ to describe the transactional relationship between child and environment. As they state, Ã¢â¬Ëgoodness-of-fit results when the childÃ¢â¬â¢s capacities, motivations and temperament are adequate to master the demands, expectations and opportunities of the environmentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Chess and Thomas, 1984, p. 80). Looking at the evidence presented above it is inconclusive that parents are the primary cause of disturbed and disturbing behaviour in their children; it is important to reaffirm that there are multiple pathways to disturbed behaviour and that maternal and paternal behaviour represent just two among a constellation of social context, family and parental risk factors that have been found to be associated with childhood difficulties (chapter, 2, p. 77). The evidence presented by Murray and Stein, 1991; Garver, 1997; Wakschlag and Hans, 1999; Halligan et al. , 2004 stating that disturbed/disturbing behaviour in children can be related to difficulties in the relationships with their mothers, is refuted by Cox et al. saying, not all depressed mothers develop difficulties in their relationships with their offspring. The issue is not about whether the direction of effect runs from child to mother or from mother to child; it is about their mutual influence as partners in a relationship. Children as well as parents play an active role in the process of development (chapter, 2, p. 80). In summary any particular Ã¢â¬ËproblemsÃ¢â¬â¢ that a child might present need to be understood in terms of the demands of the context, the history of similar experiences faced by the child and the history of the adult who finds the childÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour disturbing (chapter, 2, p. 64).
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Questions related to analysis of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s position to achieve its long term goal have always been one of the most discussed topics in management. Different scholars have tried to answer the problem in different ways. Some focus on external factors, others on external factors, while others combine both. One of the most important concepts was developed by Robert Waterman and Tom Peters, both of whom worked with McKinsey & Company consulting firm. The modelÃ¢â¬â¢s concept states that there are seven aspects of a company which need to be balanced to achieve the long term objective. The 7 Elements The 7 elements of the theory are structure, systems, staff, skills, strategy, style and shared values. Structure refers to the arrangement of financial and human resources teams within different teams and groups of business. The systems element is stands for the technical platforms as well as business platforms used to support the key approaches which are used by the company in order to achieve its objectives. Skills are the ability of the different activities to excel in their respective functions and activities. Strategy is the description of the different ways for a company to achieve its objectives and goals. Staff stands for the type of employees it has, salaries which they draw and how they (i.e. employees) are retained. Style means work culture of a company, in the area of leadership and communication between staff as well as shareholders. Shared values are reflected in the long term corporate goal of the company and how it explains its reasons for being. Objectives Strategy, systems and structure are known as hard elements while skills, style, staff as well as shared values are known as soft elements. Each of them helps in development and execution of the business process in a precise manner so as to develop your organizational skills. The HR departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s task is therefore to have a clear understanding of the company, and make proper use of these factors in order to fulfill long term corporate goals. How to use the framework? The above mentioned framework can be used to detect the gaps which might appear in the business processes, and create misalignments. They help the HRÃ team to identify the exact areas where these problems are arising and can be used to analyze a change in systems and ways in which it impacts the company as a whole. Planning the process of change will help in ensuring that all elements mentioned in the 7 S models are balanced to perfection. As a result, all processes as well as departments can be aligned with each other and help in achievement of that objective. The 7 S models can be used in order to analyze the present situation of the business, the envisioned future goal as well as detects the gaps between them. Reference: http://classof1.com/homework-help/human-resource-management-homework-help
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Ethical Issues Of Race In Medical Research - Essay Example Many doctors believed that them to have a wild sexual expression, which was a danger to the white society. They were thought to be inferior to the white people on intellectual bases and were also alleged of being attracted towards white women. Furthermore, most doctors held the belief that immorality and family problems amongst the Negro community had made them more prone to diseases such as syphilis, and treating them was next to impossible. Also high rates of syphilis in the Negro community had led to an increase in crime and insanity, making them a threat to the other communities. These set of ideas, all relating to racial discrimination against the Negro community, played a significant role in letting the health authorities to make the rural syphilitic Negroes, a part of this study. Thus, the origin of this study was also driven by the racial discrimination of the health authorities against the African-American community. The Tuskegee Study was certainly packed with ethical issue s. It was a display of racism and injustice on part of the health authorities, who showed a complete lack of concern for the African-American community. It was a study carried under ghastly circumstances resulting in many patients dying from painful deaths. Initially, being planned for six months, the study was extended up to forty years and showed no signs of stopping, regardless the number of deaths. No protest was carried out, and no significant actions were taken against the immoral and perilous nature of the study.
Monday, August 12, 2019
Human Pollution and Hazardous Chemicals - Essay Example The research paper Ã¢â¬Å"Human Pollution and Hazardous ChemicalsÃ¢â¬ investigates the influence of hazardous chemicals on human health through ways such as water, soil, and air (atmosphere). Human pollution are man-made pollutions that are caused by human beings through release of toxic substances and hazardous chemicals into the natural environment thereby causing hazardous and huge health effects and undesirable environment for human health. The great increase in human pollution results from faster population increase, increased industrialization and faster infrastructure development that forces man to clear the natural resources available for better ecosystem being. These results from human actions and activities like energy generation especially from nuclear generating plant, consumption, industrial production, waste disposal, and transportation. The pollutants may reach the surrounding human environments through ways such as water, soil, and air (atmosphere). Studies have sh own that most of the water pollutants come from land such as chemical fertilizers, detergents, pesticides, heavy metals, oil, plastics, sewage, and other metals where they accumulate deep down in the ocean flow and sediments, and later consumed by marine organisms which may later be re-introduced to the global food chain when they are consumed by man. Pollutants like Sulphur dioxide gas and carbon monoxide when excessively released into the atmosphere may lead to depletion of ozone layer leading to global warming and changes in climate systems.
The Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith - Essay Example One of the essential ideas in Ã¢â¬Å"The Wealth of NationsÃ¢â¬ is the division of labour. According to Smith, the division of labour occurs due to the increase in production rather than any other factor. The division of labour, however, can only be beneficial if a nation has more industry in place. The book argues that agriculture does not produce a larger division of labour as compared to industry. According to Smith, the division of labor arises not from the innate wisdom of the masses, but due to a human tendency to barter. Smith, therefore, argues that the reasons for the specialization are due to the differences in natural talent rather than any other factor. The book also discusses the limitations of the division of labour and indicates that the division of labour is actually limited by the extent of the market. The overall limited opportunities in the market actually result into the lack of labour specialization. If a market can be expanded, the specialization of labour can further occur, and the society can benefit from more skilled workers. In 1778, Smith was appointed the Commissioner to the Customs. This experience sharpened his understanding of trading and of the manner how exchange actually took place between two parties. He designed and developed policies and methods to curb smuggling so that overall revenues could be increased. He remained single during his entire life and died in Edinburgh on July 19, 1790 (Smith, 1761 a). He was a ruthless advocate of individualism, and his interests ranged from natural theology, ethics, and jurisprudence, to economics, which may explain the cause as to why he wrote Ã¢â¬Å"The Theory of Moral SentimentsÃ¢â¬ (Smith, 1761 a). He denied self-love as a principle which could never be virtuous. He thought that sympathy and self-interest were complementary. He once expressed that it was not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that a worker could expect dinner, however, in fact, each ag ent worked in their own self-interest (Smith, 1761 a). He also discussed the concept of money and how various commodities were used as money. He reviewed the origins of money and how different nations actually used it in order to create a medium for exchange. He also speculated how metals were used as money and how nations actually invented new methods of developing money with the purpose of creating an exchange value. Further, he also discussed nominal prices for commodities as well as prices for labour. He also outlined how prices were actually determined and what were some of their components. Smith was in favour of labour and indicated that labour was the means by which an individual earned wages in a competitive market; a labourer must produce something others valued to earn (Smith, 1761 a). Ã¢â¬Å"The Wealth of NationsÃ¢â¬ reveals that nature and causes of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s prosperity come from the increasing of the labour division to systematize its production (Smith, 17 61 a). Smith professed that individual would invest resources, e.g. land and labour, to earn the highest possible return of investment, but it must yield to the equal rate of return (Smith, 1977 b). For classical economists this was the core of SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s proposition of economic theory. Smith advocated equality of returns to explain the differences of salaries based on the knowledge, skills,
Sunday, August 11, 2019
The changes in media and uses of media in their lifetime and the effects on their personal, social and work lives - Essay Example Technology has and still is evolving so fast that it has left people utterly spellbound by the comfort added to a common manÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Personally, advancements in technology have helped me live my life extremely conveniently than I was living prior to the invention of television, cameras, and computers/laptops, etc. AB: What was the first technology that you used? Was that a common product in that time? AK: The first technology that I remember using with most enthusiasm was a wireless radio which was particularly special in the sense that it operated on FM programming which made it better than other radios most other people owned around me which used the AM method. FM radio technology was developed as an alternative to AM because it could transmit signals on any frequency. At the time I got one FM radio for myself in 1961, this technology was newly introduced and very few people owned it so it was not quite a common product in that time. But yes, FM radio technology became rapid ly popular during the 1960s and very soon it began to be recognized as publicÃ¢â¬â¢s choicest medium for listening to rock music or classical plays. AB: Can you describe the first impression of your first touch with that technology? AK: Because the wireless FM radio technology I just mentioned was new at the time I bought it and not many people around me had one of the kind then, so naturally I felt extremely lucky, blessed, and enthralled because it was such an exceptionally modern and convenient medium of listening to music, dramas, and educational programs. At the time I first came across this prized technology, it was the fastest medium for communicating news of the day and the first choice of people like me who were unfortunate enough to get a television. However, only a handful people of my age possessed the kind of radio I had for myself in 1961 which made me quite distinguished among my friends and the memories of how we friends used to get together to listen to the classi cal music broadcasted on the radio are just priceless. AB: How did the media change? For better or worse? AK: Not long after commercial television stations were made available in the market during late 1940s, radio technology took hold of the people throughout the 1960s and onwards. While the technology continued to attract gifted inventors from all over the world, one after another riveting change in media got introduced at more affordable prices which revolutionized peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives for the better. Also, there were huge payoffs like myriad technology advancements brought people closer by turning the world into a global village and bridging distances. Many tasks which otherwise consumed many hours began to be completed in a matter of minutes and one can access the entire world through the internet while sitting at one place. AB: How did you communicate with your family or relatives in overseas in the past? How about now? AK: There is no comparison between the way I and other p eople of my generation used to communicate with family and relatives living abroad in the past and in the present. In the past, the means of communication with family and friends were extremely slow, time-consuming, taxing, and literally wore people out. In contrast, communication media now are unbelievably fast, liberating, rewarding, and facile. Now people do not have to wait for months for the letters written by them to reach their dear ones thanks to
Saturday, August 10, 2019
Strategic Analysis of the Continental Airlines - Case Study Example This also means strengthening the airline's alliances and enhancing efficiency through the elimination of non-value adding processes in the value chain. Fund the future, on the other hand, encompasses the company's quest in ensuring its future growth by the reduction of interest expense, improving fleet plan, and developing hub real estate (Continental Airlines Company Profile 2008). The third component of the Go Forward Plan emphasizes the importance of customer satisfaction in CAL's success. Thus, in intends to position itself as a top player in terms of four DOT measurements namely, "on-time arrivals, baggage handling, complaints, and involuntary denied boardings" (Continental Airlines Company Profile 2008). This also means continue to project a responsible company image and improving its core product. Lastly, working together looks at CAL's relationship with its employees. Recognizing the importance of its staff in the realization of its strategic goals, the company's management spearheads in creating a fun environment to work, offer fair remuneration, and treat staff with dignity and respect. CAL is organized according to the different functional areas in the business organization. ... All of these business units are led by senior vice presidents who oversee operations and provide the much needed guidance and leadership. Recognizing the international operation of the CAL, it also opted to divide its operation according to geographic location. Thus, it also assigned vice presidents who take charge in the Newark, Houston, Cleveland, Asia Pacific, and Europe hubs. In order to facilitate efficiency in decision making, the headquarter assigns a certain level of autonomy to the leaders in these regions yet CAL can still be referred to as a highly centralized business organization noting the dependence of its satellite offices to the main office (Continental Airlines Company Profile 2008). Organizational Culture With the Go Forward Plan as its blueprint for success, CAL communicates its culture of excellence through its commitment in taking care of its financial health, future growth, employee relations, and customer satisfaction. These are the core values that the company utilizes in order to become successful in its operation. In addition, CAL also highlights its culture of environmentalism, community service, and diversity. The company promotes its corporate social responsibility through programs which enhances sustainable development through its carbon offset program, use of electric powered rather than fossil fueled ground equipment, and designing more environmental friendly infrastructure to support its operation. Though it limits its donation on in kind basis, CAL is seen to contribute to the community service. Lastly, the company honors diversity noting that individual differences in workforce should be honored. Management Style and Philosophy The management style and philosophy applied by