Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Health Organization Case Study in the USA Essay

Health Organization Case Study in the USA - Essay Example As Mensik et al. (2011) provide continuous focus has been on enhancing further insurance coverage, augmented by government insurance of public sector employees. There has been need for enhanced public-private sector partnership in tackling the critical issue through development of prevailing health care organizations. Factors influencing this strategy have concentrated on the need to address nurse staffing, network/ organizational growth, resource management, and ultimately patient satisfaction. Each of these remains a critical issue especially given the fact that the U.S. is still ranked low in terms of quality health care amongst the industrialized nations. Banner Health is a non-profit health organization based in Phoenix, Arizona operating a network of 23 hospitals, in addition to specialized facilities. A large organization by national standards, it caters for the provision of health services, i.e. hospital care, emergency care, outpatient surgery centers, rehab services, labs, hospice, home/ long-term care and pharmacies (Mensik et al., 2011). Recent inclusion of primary care physician clinics i.e. Banner Medical Group and Banner Arizona Medical Clinic further cements the entities stake within the American health sector. In addition, the entity operates a Medicare Advantage insurance plan (Banner MediSun) as part of its larger strategy of greater medical coverage of the American populace.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Weighwood Case Essay Example for Free

Weighwood Case Essay When Wedgwood started his business, pottery industry is already established, comprises many small players around the country. He started with a small production facility, incorporated his experience from working in family business and many years in the industry. His passion and innovative ideas helped him expand his business and grew to become a big player in potter industry. Wedgwood was a differentiator company, specifically a late mover in the industry. Wedgwood gained competitive advantages through innovation, creativity, and strong marketing strategies. Innovation and creativity were the key to Wedgwood success, including the invention of creamware and white pottery. Josiah focused on bringing new ideas to the design of his products, finding new raw materials to help producing better products, and building/creating machines with latest technology to help with efficiency and uniformity. His wife specialized in pottery design and coloring which help their products differentiate from other plain pottery products in the market. Moreover, the sustained competitive advantage Wedgwood had, was the result of good marketing strategies with help from Josiahs partner, Bentley. Base on the reading, marketing strategies Wedgwood used were establishing showroom, inertia selling strategy, and promotion through high class people (Queen). Wedgwood was also the first one in the industry have brand name on every products. Wedgwood were so successful in England until its number of productions exceed the number of sale which cause the company to stock up a very high inventory. This opportunity caused Wedgwood to expand internationally to many countries in Europe and China. Wedgwood leverage its competitive advantage through demand side scope economy. Firstly, company needed new outlet for products that overproduced for local market. The example from class discussion would be Coke case. Coke and Pepsi competed with each other until the market were fully saturated, then Coke started to go global to exploit other markets in other countries. Wedgwood introduced its products to many countries in Europe and to China. Wedgwoods products were new to international market because of their design, coloring, uniformity. Wedgwood also used inertia selling strategies which company send products to consumer in a package with invoice and consumers can either buy or return the products at no cost to them. This strategy was to create demand for company products. Secondly, there were potential benefits to company to expand internationally because of the increasing spending on nonessential or luxury goods around European countries. Shipping methods also became more secured and convenience. As a result, Wedgwoods products were sold internationally to meet the demand in the form of luxury or nonessential goods. To better understand of how above strategies would work internationally and how Wedgwood sustained its competitive, the products were global products. All of the products were produced in home country, England, and then ship to other countries to retail store or direct sell to consumers. Wedgwood also established showroom in many countries to display its products, and make people wants its products. Wedgwood was not adapt to local market in different countries but to sell its home products and position their image just as intended. The example that relates to this idea was the discussion in class about the case which Apple open an Apple Store in Beijing. Apple products are also global products. Apples positioning strategy is uniform all around the world. Wedgwoods products were also uniform and mass produced in England and they do not need to be modified to fit to foreign market.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Was Hamlet Insane Essay -- essays research papers

Was Hamlet insane? Scholars have debated this question ever since Shakespeare presented this play to the public. Although I am not a scholar, I believe that there is enough evidence in the play to suggest Hamlet had been sane. He may have been depressed and angry however this was due to the treachery and betrayal contaminating Denmark. The insanity act had been an instrument to allow Hamlet the freedom to achieve his goal of revenge. When the audience first meets Hamlet, he is dressed in black. He is in mourning over the death of his father. When questioned by Gertrude about his attire and his disposition, Hamlet replies 'But I have that within which passeth show—these are but the trappings and the suits of woe.'; (Act 1, Scene 2). Hamlet is incensed over his mother's hasty remarriage to Claudius by stating 'She married. O most wicked speed, to post With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!'; He comments that he would commit suicide if his religious beliefs allowed it. To add to Hamlets problems, his girlfriend Ophelia refuses to see him anymore. She 'did repel his letters and denied His access…';. No explanation is given to Hamlet about her actions. The audience knows that Polonius is responsible however Hamlet does not know this. Hamlet is an angry, depressed man due to life altering events. His faith in humanity is at an all time low. It is in this depressed state of mind that Hamlet meets the ghost of his father. Hamlet's friends find him ranting...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Cultural Literacy Essay

Cultural Literacy. What is it? How can one define it? Is it knowing the answers to questions such as: who are Joseph Stalin and Frederick Douglass? Who fought in WWI? What was the Louisiana purchase? What is the second commandment? Name an amendment to the constitution? Try this on for size, who is the host of Total Request Live on MTV? Who is J. Lo engaged to? Cultural literacy is knowledge of what one should know in order to be a functional member of an educated society. It includes an understanding of one’s language, grammar, pronunciations, syntax in speech, and the basic listening, reading and writing skills along with the knowledge of mathematics and history. Many argue whether cultural literacy is possible or not, whether it can truly exist. The whole concept of cultural literacy is an important one. Especially to America. America, being the great melting pot that it is needs to have this for everybody. We are constantly receiving new people into our country and as they come, our cultures â€Å"rub off† on each other, they begin to intertwine with another. By understanding these different groups we understand their cultures and we become more culturally literate (to the other persons culture) and our cultures actually mix. America is great because of this. The concept of cultural literacy is an important one to understand in order to make America a better place to live for everybody. To answer the question of whether or not it is possible for cultural literacy to exist, we need to break it down. We have to know what it means and who it applies to. We also need to understand how it works. The works of E. D. Hirsch, Jr. , â€Å"Cultural Literacy (excerpt),† and Jay Chaskes, â€Å"The First-year Student as Immigrant,† expose the definition of what cultural literacy is and how this definition varies as it comes across various cultures, groups, members and individuals in a society. Cultural literacy is possessing the information needed to be able to interpret a statement the way it was meant to be interpreted by an author or speaker. Many things are open to different interpretations, though. Hirsch agrees, â€Å"? we cannot treat reading and writing as empty skills, independent of specific knowledge. The reading skill of a person may vary greatly from task to task. The level of literacy exhibited in each task depends on the relevant background information that person possesses (217). † People who give this information are tryingto pass along a message. As long as one can receive that message correctly in most cases, they are considered culturally literate. We can safely assume that everyone is at a different level of cultural literacy since everyone knows a different amount and has experienced a different amount. A good author or speaker is able to communicate his or her message to these people with different amounts of knowledge and experience and have the same viewers receive the basically same message. One may be considered â€Å"culturally literate† somewhere, then culturally illiterate elsewhere. You can’t expect anyone to know all the information needed to interpret something correctly. But with what they already know, they can form a correct conclusion. Jay Chaskes, the author of â€Å"The First-Year Student as Immigrant,† supports this notion: As with all newly-arrived immigrants, students must learn various skills and acquire certain knowledge bases before the can be recognized as citizens of their adopted country (i. e. , they must successfully complete their first year of college). These skills and knowledge bases include communication skills, cultural rules and expectations, geography, performing as a â€Å"good citizen,† and learning the community’s services and structure. (Chaskes 31) When students and immigrants first arrive they have some sense of knowledge and understanding of where they are and what is around them. Once they begin to adapt to their new environment and learn new skills to be seen as a member of their community, they become more culturally aware of their surroundings. With the knowledge they had and with the new information they attained the students and immigrants form â€Å"correct conclusions and assumptions. † People have different levels of cultural literacy based upon experience and common knowledge. For example lets take a closer look at Chaskes’ section on Professors and Academic Culture: Compared to their high school teachers, college professors may present a more aloof and distant demeanor. The student discovers that the rhythm of the professor’s work day may limit when he or she might be seen. The comings and goings of the professoriate seem somewhat inscrutable. (32) This culture of new first-year students are not used to this. They might be used to a closer relationship with their professors like in their secondary school where they are able to reach and meet with their professors at specific hours. Everything is different now. It is not that the system of their previous school was wrong,it is just different. But once they become accustomed, they acculturate to this new college culture. Because of their previous experience, they were on a different level of cultural literacy. Basically different cultures are going to see things differently than another. Neither is wrong it is just how one culture interprets that specific thing. Some people might be more educated in one area and others in another. Basic knowledge may be held by someone who have gone through many experiences, and because of their experiences they could understand what another is talking about. A different, well educated person might not get the idea as well because it is harder for them to relate. For example, in Hirsch’s excerpt, â€Å"Cultural Literacy,† he exhibits an experiment conducted by Richard C. Anderson and others at the Center for the Study of Reading at the University of Illinois in which they grouped two sets of paired readers. These individuals were all similar in sexual balance, educational background, age, and social class. However, the only discrepancy was that one group was in India and the other in the U. S. : Both were given the same two letters to read. The texts were similar in overall length, word-frequency distribution, sentence length and complexity, and number of explicit propositions. Both letters were on the same topic, a wedding, but one described an Indian wedding, the other an American wedding. The reading performances of the two ? split along national lines. The Indians performed well in reading about the Indian wedding but poorly in reading about the American one, and the Americans did the opposite. This experiment not only reconfirmed the dependence of reading skill on cultural literacy, it also demonstrated its national character. (Hirsch 220) This is a great example by Hirsch that demonstrates what actually happens in the real world. The fact that the Indian was knowledgeable about the Indian wedding is not surprising since he probably attended one. So, to the Indian culture he is probably considered culturally literate. If the American had previously attended an Indian wedding he would definitely know more about such an event. He would be building upon his â€Å"Indian cultural literacy† by experience, which doesn’t apply to IQ (or fact knowledge). An equal example of how this would occur in the real world would be an Indian person who just immigrated to America. Let’s assume he can speak English already, but he has no previous experience in America. If he read about the wedding of the president he could probably understand the basics, but not the specifics. The reason for that is because India has weddings and so he will understand how two people are joined together. If he had never heard of that he would probably be thinking what they mean by joining together. But assuming he understands that part of it, he might not understand that rings are usually what spouses give each other at weddings, or that, traditionally, Americans are making a vow to God when they get married. Although the wedding has two different meanings to two different people of different cultures, both ideas are still correct—like someone saying toe-may-toe, vs. toe-mah-toe. It is just how it is interpreted from that individual’s culture and experiences. Since culture is the way certain people live, and everyone lives in different ways, no one can have the same cultural literacy. So even if we all posses the same knowledge, our differences in personal experiences set our levels of cultural literacy apart. One thing can mean something different to two people, but may be correct either way. It is just how that certain thing is deciphered by every culture. Also, in one place a person could be considered culturally literate, and in another he or she would be considered culturally illiterate (even if they were more knowledgeable than most people in their own culture). If they had time to adapt to the new culture and gain experience in that culture, then they would become more and more â€Å"culturally literate† in that culture. Works Cited Chaskes, Jay. â€Å"The First-Year Student as Immigrant. † From Inquiry to Argument. McMeniman, Linda. Allyn & Bacon, 1999. Pg. 29 Hirsch Jr. , E. D. â€Å"Cultural Literacy (excerpt). † From Inquiry to Argument. McMeniman, Linda. Allyn & Bacon, 1999. Pg. 214.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Benefits of Learning in a Diverse Environment in Toronto Essay

Toronto,Canada has been one of the most multicultural cities in the world and has attracted thousands of immigrants and foreign students each year mostly from Asian and European countries (Toronto, 2007) Due to the popularity of the city to foreigners as well as the prestigious schools it has such as the University of Toronto and the York University, students from different parts of the world have been attracted to study in the city. Universities have been offering a diverse learning environment, offering curriculum, facilities, and learning resources including professors and instructors that address the needs of and accommodate the growing number of foreign students and immigrants in Toronto. A diverse learning environment offers various benefits to students regardless of culture and nationality. First, it introduces me to different cultures and race, making students like me become aware of various cultures and beliefs. Having the awareness of different cultures of people in Toronto can improve my interpersonal and communication skills. â€Å"Hanging around people of different culture develop the students’ ability to understand the ideas and feelings of others, which in later life makes them, more likely to live in racially diverse communities, maintain friendships with people of different races and able to function more effectively in an increasingly diverse workplace† (Haas, 1999). From this view, a diverse learning environment therefore can eliminate or reduce racism and racist attitudes towards the minority groups. It also can also prepare me to adapt to a diverse environment in case I have to work or migrate to other country particularly in Asian and European countries especially now that the level of globalisation is increasing. A diverse learning environment can also improve my ability of working in a team since in universities, there are particular activities that needed group efforts and diverse ideas that can result to a more comprehensive outcome, providing me various ideas that could have never been available if not because of my foreign classmates and friends and even professors. On the other hand, there are still some people who are not open-minded and are not interested in learning about other cultures due to their very racist attitudes. A diverse learning environment with students or professors like these people can negatively affect some foreign students and students from minority groups, making them feel discriminated and unwelcome to such learning environment that may lessen their interest in studying or acquainting with students of different nationalities. However, in Toronto, it seems not much of a problem because foreigners and immigrants have long been welcomed in the city. Reference: Haas, Mark (1999) Research shows diverse environment has educational benefits, retrieved on-line on February 13, 2007 Toronto website retrieved on February 14, 2007 http://www. toronto. ca/quality_of_life/diversity. htm

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Symbolises innocence Essay Example

Symbolises innocence Essay Example Symbolises innocence Essay Symbolises innocence Essay Write about the use Blake makes of childrens voices in at least two other poems.  I am using the innocence poems The Lamb and Infant Joy in order to compare the way Blake uses childrens voices with the experienced poem Infant Sorrow  The Lamb is written like a religious hymn and is narrated by a small child. The Little Lamb in the poem symbolises Jesus. The structure of The Lamb is two simple stanzas each of ten lines. The first half of the poem represents the child talking to The Lamb the second half shows the Lamb replying to the small child. The first half of the poem also acts as a chorus, like in a religious hymn, the simple structure reflects the simplicity of the poem and the child. Infant Joy shows the joys of a child being born and the choosing of names. The poem is narrated by a two day old baby throughout. The poem shows the celebration of child birth and a child. The structure of Infant Joy is two simple stanzas, each of six lines, the structure if simple like the baby, this symbolises innocence.  Infant Sorrow is the partner poem of Infant Joy ad is the complete opposite of it. It shows the pain and upset caused by child birth and shows the loneliness of the newborn baby. The structure of Infant Sorrow is two stanzas, each of four lines, which appears quite simple and innocence like however the lines are much longer than in Infant Joy. The poem is narrated by a new born baby. The three poems I have chosen have a lot of similarities, they are all narrated by children or babies but Blake changes his style of writing in each case. In Infant Joy the baby is but two days old, the baby appears happy and content as it is an innocence poem, throughout the poem the baby talks of its joy of being born. In The Lamb the small child is talking to Jesus, represented by The Lamb. The child asks questions of creation and then replies to itself. The Lamb is different to Infant Joy as the child is playing both parts, the lamb and the child therefore asking and answering its own questions where as in Infant Joy there is only one character, the baby, and therefore we only feel its emotions, the mother and father are not involved in the poem. Whereas in Infant Sorrow the mother and father play a main part, the baby talks of the upset and moaning of his mother and father shortly and it is born and shows how it is feeling lonely and controlled. Blake here is obviously creating a different child for each poem, and each child obviously has its own voice and opinions. Possibly, the babies in Infant Joy and Infant Sorrow are the same baby but Blake has given them different situations to live and cope in. Blake uses different language also in each of the poems, in The Lamb Blake uses archaic language to symbolise the relationship between the child, God and Jesus, Dost thou know who made thee, whereas in Infant Joy Blake uses innocent, positive words to symbolise that the baby is happy with its birth and excited at the fact that it will soon be named. Infant Sorrow is in complete contrast with the two other poems; Blake uses negative, experienced words of corruption and hatred to portray the emotions that the baby is feeling.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Roman Catholic

Ever since the dawn of the 16th Century, much of the European countries were controlled or greatly affected by reining religions. Throughout much of history, the dominating Roman Catholic Church was the major cause of battles and wars. This was especially a causing factor of the Thirty-Year’s War in Western Europe. Many rulers used religion as an excuse to disturb the peace and take control of another country. During those times, religions were used as force. Whenever the Emperor or Empress of a different belief inherits or steps into power, their whole country is officially under their religion. The most significant religion change came when Henry VII of England wanted to divorce to have a boy. The pope denied this right, thus leaving him without a heir. Acting as a very desperate man, he banned the Catholic Church and became Protestant. Church is where everybody, poor and rich gather for a prayers. Sometimes people go to church for salvation and a passage to heaven. Unfortunately the Roman Catholic Church took advantage of those people, taking money from people to be forgiven by God. Indulgences occurred during the time of Pope Leo X whereas people paid large sums of money to the clergymen for the clergy’s own well being. Adding to the fact, popes of the Roman Catholic Church had the luxury of eating well, dressing well and hunting; which disturbed many people to see the head of the church act this way. This upset many people, thus lead to the Reformation. The Reformation, as it was know began when a scholar, Martin Luther saw follies of religious and moral deficiencies of certain sections of the clergy of the Holy Roman Empire in Germany in 1517. However, the reformation was much influenced by political and economic factors. The sale of indulgences to gain salvation gave large sums of money, most of which c ontributed to the wealth of the clergy. In the meanwhile, there was a growing reaction of princes and jurists against the m... Free Essays on Roman Catholic Free Essays on Roman Catholic Ever since the dawn of the 16th Century, much of the European countries were controlled or greatly affected by reining religions. Throughout much of history, the dominating Roman Catholic Church was the major cause of battles and wars. This was especially a causing factor of the Thirty-Year’s War in Western Europe. Many rulers used religion as an excuse to disturb the peace and take control of another country. During those times, religions were used as force. Whenever the Emperor or Empress of a different belief inherits or steps into power, their whole country is officially under their religion. The most significant religion change came when Henry VII of England wanted to divorce to have a boy. The pope denied this right, thus leaving him without a heir. Acting as a very desperate man, he banned the Catholic Church and became Protestant. Church is where everybody, poor and rich gather for a prayers. Sometimes people go to church for salvation and a passage to heaven. Unfortunately the Roman Catholic Church took advantage of those people, taking money from people to be forgiven by God. Indulgences occurred during the time of Pope Leo X whereas people paid large sums of money to the clergymen for the clergy’s own well being. Adding to the fact, popes of the Roman Catholic Church had the luxury of eating well, dressing well and hunting; which disturbed many people to see the head of the church act this way. This upset many people, thus lead to the Reformation. The Reformation, as it was know began when a scholar, Martin Luther saw follies of religious and moral deficiencies of certain sections of the clergy of the Holy Roman Empire in Germany in 1517. However, the reformation was much influenced by political and economic factors. The sale of indulgences to gain salvation gave large sums of money, most of which c ontributed to the wealth of the clergy. In the meanwhile, there was a growing reaction of princes and jurists against the m...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Foreign Policy Under Thomas Jefferson

Foreign Policy Under Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson, a Democrat-Republican, won the presidency from John Adams in the election of 1800. Highs and lows marked his foreign policy initiatives, which included the spectacularly successful Louisiana Purchase, and the horrid Embargo Act. Years in Office: first term, 1801-1805; second term, 1805-1809. Foreign Policy Ranking: first term, good; second term, disastrous Barbary War Jefferson was the first president to commit US forces to a foreign war. Barbary pirates, sailing from Tripoli (now the capital of Libya) and other places in North Africa, had long demanded tribute payments from American merchant ships plying the Mediterranean Sea. In 1801, however, they raised their demands, and Jefferson demanded an end to the practice of bribe payments. Jefferson sent US Navy ships and a contingent of Marines to Tripoli, where a brief engagement with pirates marked the United States first successful overseas venture. The conflict also helped convince Jefferson, never a supporter of large standing armies, that the United States needed a professionally trained military officer cadre. As such, he signed legislation to create the United States Military Academy at West Point. Louisiana Purchase In 1763, France lost the French and Indian War to Great Britain. Before the Treaty of Paris of 1763 stripped it permanently of all territory in North America, France ceded Louisiana (a roughly defined territory west of the Mississippi River and south of the 49th Parallel) to Spain for diplomatic safe-keeping. France planned to retrieve it from Spain in the future. The deal made Spain nervous as it feared to lose the territory, first to Great Britain, then to the United States after 1783. To prevent incursions, Spain periodically shut down the Mississippi to Anglo-American trade. President Washington, through Pinckneys Treaty in 1796, negotiated an end to Spanish interference on the river. In 1802, Napoleon, now emperor of France, made plans to reclaim Louisiana from Spain. Jefferson recognized that French reacquisition of Louisiana would negate Pinckneys Treaty, and he sent a diplomatic delegation to Paris to renegotiate it. In the meantime, a military corps that Napoleon had sent to reoccupy New Orleans had run afoul of disease and revolution in Haiti. It subsequently abandoned its mission, causing Napoleon to consider Louisiana too costly and cumbersome to maintain. Upon meeting the US delegation, Napoleons ministers offered to sell the United States all of Louisiana for $15 million. The diplomats did not have the authority to make the purchase, so they wrote to Jefferson and waited weeks for a response. Jefferson favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution; that is, he did not favor wide latitude in interpreting the document. He abruptly switched to a loose constitutional interpretation of executive authority and okayed the purchase. In doing so, he doubled the size of the United States cheaply and without warfare. The Louisiana Purchase was Jeffersons greatest diplomatic and foreign policy achievement. Embargo Act When fighting between France and England intensified, Jefferson tried to craft a foreign policy that allowed the United States to trade with both belligerents without taking sides in their war. That was impossible, given that both sides considered trade with the other a de facto act of war. While both countries violated American neutral trade rights with a series of trade restrictions, the United States considered Great Britain to be the biggest violator because of its practice of impressment- kidnapping US sailors from American ships to serve in the British navy. In 1806, Congress- now controlled by Democrat-Republicans- passed the Non-Importation Act, which prohibited the import of certain goods from the British Empire. The act did no good, and both Great Britain and France continued to deny American neutral rights. Congress and Jefferson ultimately responded with the Embargo Act in 1807. The act, believe it or not, prohibited American trade with all nations- period. Certainly, the act contained loopholes, and some foreign goods came in while smugglers got some American goods out. But the act stopped the bulk of American trade, hurting the nations economy. In fact, it wrecked the economy of New England, which relied almost exclusively on trade to support its economy. The act rested, in part, on Jeffersons inability to craft a creative foreign policy for the situation. It also pointed out American arrogance which believed the major European nations would cave in without American goods. The Embargo Act failed, and Jefferson ended it just days before he left office in March 1809. It marked the lowest point of his foreign policy attempts.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Biology paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Biology paper - Essay Example Human beings are members of the tribe Hominina together with vanishing species of sub-tribe Hominina. Also, Chimpanzees are the only recognized members of the sub-species Panina. The two species of Panina divided about one million years ago. Chimpanzees display very minimal morphological variances between subspecies. They have a more robust body than bonobos Pan paniscus. Additionally, they are faintly sexually dimorphic. On average, females weigh averagely from 32 to 47 kg (70.5 to 104 lb) while males weigh averagely from 40 to 60 kg (88.2 to 132 lb) (Rowe 1996). Both females and males have a typical height of 816 mm (2.68 ft) (Rowe 1996). The chimpanzee taxonomy hierarchy is as follows; Suborder: Haplorrhini Infraorder: Simiiformes Superfamily: Hominoidea Family: Hominidae Genus: Pan Species: P. troglodytes Subspecies: P. t. schweinfurthii, P. t. troglodytes, P. t. vellerosus, P. t. verus. This essay discusses on the taxonomy of chimpanzee family and their biography. All Chimpanzees are black in color, but have pale faces and a white tail tuft, which later darkens with age. Chimpanzees are seen to have bulkier thick bodies with long arms that lengthen past their knees (Rowe 1996). They also have short legs, large thumbs and no tails. A large portion of their body is protected with long black hair except their faces, ears, fingers, and toes which have skin alone. These living creatures have protruding ears for both males and females, which entails white beards (Rowe 1996). Their movement array encompasses quadruped knuckle walking and irregular bipedalism. Chimpanzees are both land-dwelling and arboreal, with the quantity of time spent on the ground wavering among different case study sites and between sexes. Moreover, Chimpanzees create their sleeping nests in trees when darkness falls (Rowe 1996). A normal life span of chimpanzees is 40 to 45 years. All the same, the life span for captive chimpanzees is

Friday, October 18, 2019

Marketing Case Study with additional research and reference

Marketing with additional research and reference - Case Study Example As for the brand association, the company has positioned Starbucks store as the third place after home, and school or work, where high quality gourmet coffee is served and is available also for retail purchase. All this positioning is communicated through all the companys marketing efforts, where it builds the perceived brand quality—the layout of its stores, great customer service by friendly and knowledgeable crews, the taste of coffee, as well as extra perks that it offers such as free Internet access or sockets for electronic equipments such as laptops (Schultz 2009). All these four constitute the elements that make up a Starbucks customers loyalty. This is how Starbucks create brand equity. The Asian market promises more opportunities for growth than Europe. For one, the emerging markets are in Asia, and as these new economies grow, opportunities for foreign expansion also emerge as buyer powers increase (refer to the case). Most Asian markets are also open to the Western lifestyle (refer to the case). Because Europeans have longer history which is embedded in their culture as regards the way coffee is consumed such as in countries like Austria and Italy, the Asian market seems more attractive (refer to the case). Among the countries in Asia, Singapore seems to be the most viable country to enter, as Starbucks pose for its market entry in the region (refer to the case). In the mid-1990s, Singapore is the third largest economy in Asia, just after Japan and Brunei. Apart from having a high per capita income in the region, Singaporeans also like American products, which can give Starbucks a distinct advantage (refer to the case). Also, with the emergence of coffeehouses in the country, introducing the coffee lifestyle that Starbucks offer is no longer an issue, which otherwise could have incurred the company

Comparative Design Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Comparative Design - Essay Example enefits spread over three categories affecting customers’ services and users, the service design program, as well as the entire institution involved in the design project. A product of 1946, the classic and styling oven has cooking efficiency. A classic cooker limited secures ovens from Rayburn in the UK. The cookers are reliable with new options still applicable to date. Currently, the supplier undertakes reconditioning duties and installs new parts fully. In a style that Mark Newson adopted, Rayburn ovens of 1946 have attractive colours running on smooth lines. The design developed a classic design blending precisely with various styles those chores in the kitchen demand. It cuts across from traditional through to modern aspects. The oven comes out in various designs and sizes that clients can choose from guided by their needs. Surprisingly, a Rayburn oven carries more responsibilities besides being a cooker. The oven is extremely resourceful. The Rayburn oven developed in 1946 is sustainable as well as self-sufficient. Mark Newson introduced extraordinary creativity constituting one of the most exciting designs in the world. He applied the creativity in developing domestic appliances such as ovens. Mark Newson is the established designer at Smeg products whose work is comparable to dynamic artworks. He represents the essence of the philosophy at Smeg. At Smeg, employees believe in technology with style. The style applied by Newson in designing his ovens comes through the soft lines applicable in environmental friendly manner. Differentiated use of colour and energetic application characterises ovens designed by Mark Newson. Surfaces are stainless steel products or have glassy features. Ovens are available in prolific FP610.The ovens come in a spectacular ray of colours. The colours range from white and black finishes, stainless steel through to bright shades of yellow, blue, as well as green. Mark Newson, the designer, o ften has a special way of having

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Summary Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 14

Summary - Assignment Example The concept of universality was further expounded by classifying it into two types: the substantive universals and the formal universals. As disclosed, substantive universals construct the description of language; while formal universals were deemed more abstract; yet formalized and highly structured in terms of observance to grammatical rules. Samples of different sentence structures (deep, surface, A over A convention) were presented to differentiate the concept of universality. The criteria for evaluating grammar was likewise discussed based on four syntactic structures, being that: (1) sentences are deemed acceptable to the native speaker; (2) the case of ambiguity noted to be represented by constructional homonymity; (3) alleged diversity in interpretations of sentences which appear superficially similar to be likewise represented by varied derivational histories; and (4) understanding sentences in similar manner to have been apparently represented at one level description (Tranformational Generative Grammar 5-6). Finally, the discourse differentiated between linguistic competence and performance by indicating that competence is knowledge of a particular language, while performance ensued from this competence as a production and comprehension of language (Tranformational Generative Grammar 5). Other differentiating factors were presented to expound on their disparities to include boundaries, linguistic factors, incompetencies, situational factors, and creativity of the speaker, among

Political, Social and Economic Reasons for the Decline of the Western Essay

Political, Social and Economic Reasons for the Decline of the Western Roman Empire - Essay Example This essay presents a thorough analysis of possible political, social and economic factors, that could be considered as reasons to the decline of Western Roman Empire to different extent The political reasons surround the Barbarians, wars with Germanic tribes, growing power of Attila the Hun and the Hunnic Empire, and eventually the fall of the Western Roman Empire. In 15 AD the army of Garmanicus Caesar marched to Teutobergensis Saltus, The massacre had been performed by the joint coalition of German warriors. The Germanic groups spread all the way from Rhine in the west to River Vistula in the east and from Danube in the north to the Baltic seas in the south In AD 450, Attila threatened the empire and started preparing for an attack on Gaul and later invaded it. An alliance was made between the Romans and the Goths and in the Battle of Chalons, Attila is forced to retreat. In AD 452 Attila finally invaded Italy, where he laid the foundations of the republic of Venice. With the victory of Attila in Italy, the power of the Western Roman Empire weakened. The long tension over the Rhine-Danube frontier contributed a significant amount to its failure. The social reasons for the decline of the Western Roman Empire are often given as declining population, diseases, succession of emperors. Diseases had been a major problem for all empires and the Roman Empire surely suffered as diseases and plagues started spreading . Another reason is that of the people in empire being poisoned by the water that was carried through lead pipes. The succession of emperors has indeed played the most important part in the decline. The first Roman emperor had established that the emperor will designate the next emperor and based on approval by the senate, the emperor will take the thrown. This rule was followed for only the first few emperors and

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Summary Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 14

Summary - Assignment Example The concept of universality was further expounded by classifying it into two types: the substantive universals and the formal universals. As disclosed, substantive universals construct the description of language; while formal universals were deemed more abstract; yet formalized and highly structured in terms of observance to grammatical rules. Samples of different sentence structures (deep, surface, A over A convention) were presented to differentiate the concept of universality. The criteria for evaluating grammar was likewise discussed based on four syntactic structures, being that: (1) sentences are deemed acceptable to the native speaker; (2) the case of ambiguity noted to be represented by constructional homonymity; (3) alleged diversity in interpretations of sentences which appear superficially similar to be likewise represented by varied derivational histories; and (4) understanding sentences in similar manner to have been apparently represented at one level description (Tranformational Generative Grammar 5-6). Finally, the discourse differentiated between linguistic competence and performance by indicating that competence is knowledge of a particular language, while performance ensued from this competence as a production and comprehension of language (Tranformational Generative Grammar 5). Other differentiating factors were presented to expound on their disparities to include boundaries, linguistic factors, incompetencies, situational factors, and creativity of the speaker, among

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Can gm crops add to productivity of UK agriculture Research Proposal

Can gm crops add to productivity of UK agriculture - Research Proposal Example when the UN cites food insecurity as a major threat in the future, it is imperative to allow the technology proven fit to human and escalate the food production levels as Godfray et al. (2010) suggest. Surprisingly, even the UK has not been in a position to ensure food security mitigation as evidenced by the industry in the country. Currently, food and drink in the UK accounts for 7% of the country’s GDP; it employs over 3.5million people (Zilberman, Kaplan, Kim, Sexton & Barrows, 2014). Despite the figures, the UK has to import 40% of the food consumed by its residents. Interestingly, notwithstanding this import, the UK in 2007 made  £12 billion from its food export and  £7 billion a year later, according to Turco and Maggioni (2014). Evidently, food in the UK is a vital economy component as it helps both in feeding its residents thus saving money as well as increases its financial capabilities. As evidenced by the figures proved above, the issue of agriculture is pivotal to its growth thus explaining the reason for the continued debate concerning GM technology. Some agree, â€Å"GM crops can boost productivity in lean times† (Parul (2011p.34) while others strongly oppose this notion. Those disagreeing argue that GM technology has proved to reduce the harvests. According to Dalla-Corte and Dhein-Dill (2012), it was noted that when GM was used in Brazil, there was a 10% decline in the soya harvest. In response to these assertions, the other section contest that this decline is not necessarily attributable to the GM but other factors (Birch, Begg and Squire, 2012) Clearly, from the above information one could conclude that the issue of GM has not been well understood by all the parties. While one group argues about the decline in the harvest, another provides a reason, which clearly seems valid. For that reason, a research ought to be conducted to ascertain the exact effect of GM technology on the UK agriculture. As already proven, agriculture is an imperative

The Relationship between Head Circumference and Recall of a List Words Essay Example for Free

The Relationship between Head Circumference and Recall of a List Words Essay ABSTRACT This laboratory experiment and report aims on identifying whether head circumference has a significant relationship with the recall of list of words. In this experiment, the researcher has asked 80 (68 females and 12 males) students to participate in the experiment and each were given a chance to memorise the 30 words provided by the researcher. Because of the incomplete response of some participants and extreme values, the researcher opted to use only 61 females and 7 males (68 participants) in the data analysis. Through the use of the SPSS, the study has found that there is a weak positive correlation between the two given variables. This means that the recalling skills of the participants are significantly relevant with their head circumference or head size. INTRODUCTION Cognitive psychology is the study of how the brain processes information. In more everyday terms, it is about the mental processes involved in acquiring and making use of knowledge and experience gained from our senses (Esgate, 2004). The main processes involved in cognition are perception, learning, memory storage, retrieval and thinking, all of which are terms that are used in everyday speech and therefore already familiar to most people. In some research studies, there has been evidence among elderly people with larger head size function better on tests of cognitive function (Reynolds et al, 1999).   As noted by psychologists, an adult head size or circumference is considered to give an appropriate estimate for maximal attained brain circumference (Wickett et al., 2000), such findings have been inferred as a supporting evidence of the theory which optimal neurological development in early phases of life can provide barrier against pathological activities that can influence cognitive performance as they reached their old age (Stern, 2002). However, as the size of the head is relevant to intelligence test scores among young adults, psychologists have noted some possible relations which have been found between head circumference and the cognitive function in elderly people (Deary et al., 2000). In psychological process, some psychologists are trying to determine the relationship between head circumference and recall of a list words.   Ã‚  In a study conducted by Gale, Walton and Matyn (2003) which investigated the cognitive function of elderly people and head circumferences, they have concluded that there is no relationship between cognitive function (memory recall) and head circumference. However, the study have also shown that people with larger head circumference as an adult gained relatively higher scores n the intelligence test on both testing events and were less likely to develop a decline in memory performance over the follow-up period in the study. One other hand, in a cross-sectional study conducted among 818 health older individuals, the researchers have found out that the head circumference is related to performance on global cognitive functioning, tests measuring intelligence and speed of information processing. However, this study has revealed that head circumference or size has not been significantly related with memory functions (Tisserand et al, 2001). In this regard, the main goal of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the relationship of head circumference and recall of a list words.   Thus, this study will work on the following hypothesis:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"There is a significant relationship between the head circumference and recall of a list words†. METHOD This study was conducted in order to assess the relationship of head circumference and recall of list words among students. In order to achieve the objective of the study and to the hypothesis, the descriptive method of research was utilized. The purpose of employing the descriptive method is to describe the nature of a condition, as it takes place during the time of the study and to explore the cause or causes of a particular condition. The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire to acquire first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study. According to Creswell (1994), the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.     In terms of approach, the study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The quantitative approach focused on obtaining numerical findings was used with the laboratory experiments. The correlation research refers to studies in which the purpose is to discover relationships between variables through the use of correlation statistics (r). The square of a correlation coefficient yields the explained variance (r-squared). A correlational relationship between two variables is occasionally the result of an outside source, so we have to be careful and remember that correlation does not necessarily tell us about cause and effect. If a strong relationship is found between two variables, using an experimental approach can test causality. To assess the strength of relationship between variables, it is important to get the correlation coefficient, which can take on any value between -1 and +1, since this will tell the strength of the relationship between two ranked or quantifiable variables (Saunders et al, 2003, p. 363). Accordingly, a value of +1 represents a perfect positive correlation, which means that the two variables are exactly related, where, as the values of one variable increase, values of the other variable will increase. Conversely, a value of -1 shows a perfect negative correlation, which also means that the two variables are exactly related, only this time, as the values of one variable increase, that of the other decreases. Finally, correlation coefficients between +1 and -1 stand for weaker positive and negative correlations, and a value of 0 means that the variables are completely independent from each other. Table 1: Values of Correlation To assist the researcher in the statistical analysis of the gathered data, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. SPSS is one of the most widely available and powerful statistical software packages that covers a broad range of statistical procedures, which allows a researcher to summarise data (e.g., compute means and standard deviations), determine whether there are significant differences between groups (e.g., t-tests, analysis of variance), examine relationships among variables (e.g., correlation, multiple regression), and graph results (e.g., bar charts, line graphs) (Einstein and Abernethy, 2000). PARTICIPANTS To gather pertinent information, the students were chosen as the respondents or participants for this laboratory study. The participants of this study composed of 68 females and 12 males. However, only 61 female students and seven males were considered to be analysed due to incomplete responses and extreme values. MATERIALS For this study, the experiment has used 30 words which has been shown among the chosen students. Note that the words used ranges from 3-letter words to 4-letter words and have one and two syllables. The data gathered using these words, will determine whether there is a significant relationship between head size or circumference and recall of list words.    PROCEDURE To achieve the objective of the study, the head circumference or size of the students were measured. The measurement of head circumference ranges from 53-62. In this study, the students/participants were asked to read or memorize 30 words which have been given above.   After which the students have asked to mention what words did they recall and the researcher lists the number of words mentioned by the respondents. The scores of the students and the measure of their circumference were used for the analysis of the correlation. RESULT Significant Relations of Head Circumference and Recall   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Using SPSS, the descriptive statistics and correlation of the variables were analysed. The result of the analysis were shown in tables and diagrams below.    Descriptive Statistics Table 2 Mean Std. Deviation N Head Circumference 57.015 2.06 68 Recalled List of Words 16.87 3.54    Correlations Table 3 Head Circumference Recalled List of Words Head Circumference Pearson Correlation Sign (2-Tailed ) N 1    .    68 **.315 000. 68 Recalled List of Words Pearson Correlation Sign (2-Tailed ) N 315.** 000. 68 1    . 68 **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)    Figure 1 Scattered Diagram Figure 2 DISCUSSION Given the data gathered from the laboratory experiment, analysis shows that the average of the head size of the students is 57.015 and the recalled words mean average is 16.87 out of 30 words. The correlations table displays Pearson correlation coefficients, significance values, and the number of cases with non-missing values. Pearson correlation coefficients assume the data are normally distributed. The Pearson correlation coefficient is a measure of linear association between two variables. Basically, the values of the correlation coefficient range from -1 to 1. The sign of the correlation coefficient indicates the direction of the relationship (positive or negative). The absolute value of the coefficient of correlation signifies the strength, with larger absolute values showing stronger relationships. The correlation coefficients on the main diagonal are always 1.0, because each variable has a perfect positive linear relationship with itself. Correlations above the main diagonal are a mirror image of those below. In our data, the correlation coefficient for head circumference (independent) and recall from lists of words (dependent) is 0.315. Since 0.315 is relatively close to 1 or -1 this indicates that head circumference (independent) is weak positive correlated with the recall of list of words (dependent). The significance of each correlation coefficient is also displayed in the correlation table. The significance level (or p-value) is the probability of obtaining results as extreme as the one observed. If the significance level is very small (less than 0.05) then the correlation is significant and the two variables are linearly related. If the significance level is relatively large, for example, 0.50, then the correlation is not significant and the two variables are not linearly related. In this result, since the p-value is less than 0.05, then the two variables are not significant Based on the given data, it has been found out that head circumference has a weak positive relation with the recall of lists words. In this regard, the research accepts the hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between head circumference and recall of lists of words among students. In the scattered diagram, it can be said that there is a vague relationship between the two variables. In this regard, it can be said that head size of the students may affect the number of words recalled by the students. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of the data analysis, it can be concluded that the instrument used in this study as well as the method used to achieve its primary objective has been efficient and effective. The findings have shown that the head size or circumference of the students who took part of the study have a weak positive relation with the number of words they recalled out of 30 words provided by the researcher. This study further concluded that the memory function of an individual can be measured through the head circumference or head size of such individual.    Reference Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Deary IJ, Whalley LJ, Lemmon H, Crawford JR, Starr JM (2000). The stability of individual differences in mental ability from childhood to old age: follow-up of the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey. Intelligence 28: 49–55 Esgate, A. et al (2004). An introduction to applied cognitive psychology. Psychology Press. Hove, England. Gale, CR, Walton, S and Martyn, CN (2003). Foetal and postnatal head growth and risk of cognitive decline in old age. Brain, Vol. 126, No. 10, 2273-2278, Reynolds MD, Johnston JM, Dodge HH, DeKosky ST, Ganguli M. (1999).   Small head size is related to low Mini-Mental State Examination scores in a community sample of nondemented older adults. Neurology 53: 228–9. Stern Y. (2000). What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. J Int Neuropsychol Soc; 8: 448–60 Tisserand, DJ, Bosma, H, Van Boxtel, MPJ and Jolles, J. (2001). Head size and cognitive ability in nondemented older adults are related. Neurology 56:969-971 Wickett JC, Vernon PA, Lee DH. Relationships between factors of intelligence and brain volume. Personality Individual Difference 29: 1095–122.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Persuasive Speech Dont Eat Fast Food

Persuasive Speech Dont Eat Fast Food Attention gather: Do you know that fast food can lead to some serious illnesses such as heart attack and lack of energy? As we know that fast food is a very important meal in the America, and a quarter of the American suffer from it sickness affect and some of them even die? Tie to the audience: fast food is part of our today. We like fast food mainly is because it is convenience and easily available. On top of that is tasty Thesis and preview: many of us know that fast food is not good but we do not know how bad it is. Today I would like to persuade my audience to stop eating fast food. I will show what is in fast food, what can it do to our body and how we can prevent it. Body First point: junk food is bad because it contains chemical flavor -this means that junk food is very poor in nutrition The prepare part is definitely added with preservatives to make it last and preservative is very harmful to our health. Pre-prepared fast food has lost its original taste and needed to be added with flavor to enhance its taste According to Eric Schlosser (2001, in his best seller book entitled Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, he says that just about all the food in a fast food industry is processed; so much of the flavor is destroyed. Eric Schlosser also said that fast food is heavy on fat, salt and sugar, and reduced nutrient. Second point: junk food is unhealthy from it uses of too much of oil. -fast food need to be fast cook and lots of oil are needed Fat and calories are difficult to digest in our body and undigested fat and calories will be accumulated in our body to cause too much oil in our body -The Star newspaper reported in A Big Fat Problem (2009) by Priya Kulasagran says that government worldwide are bracing themselves for an obesity epidemic soon. This condition can potentially lead to a range of health problems such as heart disease, diabetes and even premature death. Third point: junk food causes health problems Fat and calories are difficult to digest in our body and undigested fat and calories will be accumulated in our body to cause too much oil in our body.like diabetes and obesity The Star newspaper reported in A Big Fat Problem (2009) by Priya Kulasagran says that government worldwide are bracing themselves for an obesity epidemic soon. -if we do not avoid it now, our children will suffer in the future -this fact is also available in Erics book the one you show me last night about 200,000 in hospital and in 10 years it will reached about 511,000 which is the population of Southern Malaysia Solution we need to control our consumption of fast food to balance our nutrition by eating more nutritional and natural food. For example, milk, chess, salad, and many more. Conclusion Convince my audience to stop eating fast food and eat more natural food to protect our health and future Fast food is becoming part of our life in the modern society. Due to convenience and rushing for time, many of us are now depending on fast food for our meal. Also, fast food is at almost anywhere, shopping center, high way, even airport, to make it so easily access that we all find it very convenience. Added with their delivery services and fast services, it is not only convenient but also fast to save times when we are in the rush. we all eat fast food because it is convenient and tasty, and we are also attracted to lots of promotion and free gifts, but we do not know that every bite we take, we are risking our life. Many of us know that fast food is not good to our health but we do not know how bad it is. Today I would like to persuade my audience to stop eating fast food as the harmful ingredient in   fast food. Fast food is known as junk food due to its lack of nutrition and too much chemical flavor that are harmful to our health. Most of the fast food are pre-prepared and then go through a simple process to speed up their services. The prepare part is definitely added with preservatives to make it last and it is very harmful to our health. Without preservatives, the pre-prepare food will be easily spoiled and never last. Preservative is toxin that can and caused cancer and is acidic to harm our health. During process, flavor is also added to make fast food tastier. Unlike freshly cook food, where we maintain its original taste. Pre-prepared fast food has lost its original taste and needed to be added with flavor to enhance its taste. According to Eric Schlosser (2006), in his best seller book entitled Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, he says that just about all the food in a fast food industry is processed; so much of the flavor is destroyed. Eric Schlosser also said that fast food is heavy on fat, salt and sugar, and reduced nutrient. Most flavors in fast food are made from chemical. The tastier it is, the more chemical is needed. We all know that food added with chemical is very harmful to our health. Too much chemical processed food can caused cancer. Some chemical flavor can caused our hair to drop, affect our skin structure, deteriorate our organs function and affect our body cell. All these will slowly kill our health. Eric schlosser reported in his book entitled Fast food Nation (2006) that about 200,000 people are sickened by food borne disease in the United State. About 900 are hospitalized and fourteen die. If Eric Schloeers report is true, in 10 years we will see about 511,000 people will die from food borne disease which is equal to the population of Southern Malaysia. Fast food is also fast cook. In order to cook fast, too much oil is needed. Therefore, fast food is very oily because too much oil is being absorbed into the food. When we eat fast food, we are actually eating oil. We all know that oil contains very high fat and calories, and these are the main cause of obesity. Fat and calories are difficult to digest in our body and undigested fat and calories will be accumulated in our body to cause too much oil in our body. Obesity is caused by too much fat in our body. The According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) more than a quarter of the American population suffers a bout of food poisoning each year. Star newspaper reported in A Big Fat Problem (2009) by Priya Kulasagran says that government worldwide are bracing themselves for an obesity epidemic soon. This condition can potentially lead to a range of health problems such as heart disease, diabetes and even premature death Obesity is the main cause to many health problems. It can affect our muscles, blood circulation, lung and kidney. Once our blood circulation is being affected, many other health problems will happen. For example, heart problem and lack of energy Our lives today cannot live without fast food. They are too easily available. And they are tasty and fast delivered. But too much fast food is definitely not good for our health. So, we need to control our consumption of fast food to balance our nutrition by eating more nutritional and natural food. For example, milk, chess, salad, and many more. With that we can live a comfortable, longer and healthier life. And there you have it. There for, for the better of our health and life, i strongly suggest my audience to stop eating fast food and eat more natural food to balance our nutrition and protect our health and future.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Beethoven, Bach And Bartok: Comparisons Essay -- essays research paper

Barouque Composers Still Being Played Frequently Monteverdi Lully Corelli Pachelbel Scarlatti Purcell Couperin Albinoni Vivaldi Telemann Rameau Bach Handel Gluck Baroque and Classical Orchestras – Differences <td width="50%">Baroque OrchestrasClassical OrchestrasString section and basso continuo central to the orchestra. Other instruments are occasional additions.Standard group of four sections: strings, woodwinds, brass and percussion. Different instruments treated individually.Fairly small; generally 10- 40 players.Larger than baroque; great variation to the numbers of players.Flexible use of timbres, e.g. Timpani and trumpets used generally just for festive music.Standardised sections. Most sections used regularly.Tone colour is distinctly secondary to other musical elements.Greater variety of tone colour and more rapid changes of colour. Timbre is unimportant and therefore a piece written for harpsichord could easily be rearranged for a string section.Each section of the classical orchestra has a special role. And each instrument is used distinctively.Wind instruments mainly used as solo instruments or as part of the basso continuo.The wind section had become a separat e unit capable of contrast and distinct colour.The harpsichord generally plays an ostinato under the orchestra. Piano not invented.The piano introduces a third colour-tone to be contrasted with the orchestra Baroque and Classical Concerto Form– Differences <td width="50%">Baroque Concerto FormClassical Concerto Form Concerto grosso (use of string orchestra set against a number of solo instruments) is the most popular concerto form of this period. Other forms include The ripieno concerto and the solo concerto.Symphony form develops from baroque concerto forms and becomes the new form. Shorter movements than classical form.Concerto longer than baroque from. Fairly strict structure and prerequisites, e.g. Traditional ritornello form, virtuostic displays etc.More freedom and experimentation with traditional form. First movement has solo passages extending into long sections; alternated between four or five ritornello sections. First movement constructed in a variant of ritornello form with a double exposition. Violin is preferred concerto solo instrument although the harpsichord becomes more and more popular throughout the century.The newly prominent piano tak... ...and Bart&oacute;k used instruments for solo passages that had not been used again. All demanded high performance levels from their orchestra. Both Mozart and Bart&oacute;k wrote string quartets. All had great influence on later composers, Mozart on Beethoven, Bart&oacute;k on Copeland and Bach on everyone including his twenty or so children&#61514; All were leaders in their own eras. All died tragically, all succumbing to illness. Bibliography TitleAuthor/ EditorPublisherDate James Galways’ Music in TimeWilliam MannMichael Beazley Publishers1982 The Concise Oxford History of MusicGerald AbrahamOxford University Press1979 Music in Western CivilizationPaul Henry LangW. W. Norton and Company1941 The Ultimate Encyclopaedia of Classical MusicRobert AinsleyCarlton Books Limited1995 The Cambridge Music GuideStanley SadieCambridge University Press1985 School text: Western European Orchestral MusicMary AllenHamilton Girls’ High School1999 History of MusicRoy BennettCambridge University Press1982 Classical Music for DummiesDavid PogueIDG Books Worldwide,Inc1997 Assignment Completed By: Wolff, &copy; June 2000 A: Yr 12 Musical Knowledge Research Assignment 24/05/00/Joan

Friday, October 11, 2019

Virgin Corporate Strategy

VIRGIN’S GROUP CORPORATE STRATEGY DIVERSIFICATION 1. Introduction The Virgin Group is one of Britain’s biggest and successful empires in the 21st century. The company has successfully incorporated a great number of diverse industries under the Virgin brand. This includes travel, mobile, financial services, leisure, cosmetics, retail, and music businesses. Virgin has been able to dominate the British market and has therefore continued to rapidly expand into other regions such as the United States, Canada and Australia. The enterprise was founded by Sir Richard Branson in 1970 as a simple mail-order record retailer and has grown into one of the most prosperous business empires in the business world. To date, the Virgin Group has globalized and established in over 200 small to mid-sized firms, employing over 25,000 people. As a result, the company has exceeded over $7 billion in revenue in 2002. Each one of Virgin’s 200 firms operates as a single entity. Branson either holds ownership of a firm as CEO, or has a minority or majority stake. The Virgin Group does not hold a hierarchal presence within the empire, which allowed its various subsidiaries to operate in an autonomous manner. 2. Richard Branson: The strategic thinking As the creator of Virgin and a famous personality around the world, Richard Branson has created an entrepreneurial culture that is carried throughout the Virgin group of companies. His anti-corporation and anti-bureaucracy spirit resulted in a flat organizational structure with transparency and quick communication; his loyalty and care for friends let to an organization with great employee focus, and also attracted some of the best people to work for him for a moderate salary. Looking into his kind of strategic thinking, we can see that it is characterized by having a strong relationship with risk. His attitude towards risk is explorative, willing to take risks in order to enter into completely new businesses that the company knew nothing until now. In addition to this, their type of thinking, as an mage of their leader, is characterized by being intuitive, requiring no systematic risk analysis, based largely only in the rapid perception of alternative strategic intuition. This kind of thinkers are formerly known as entrepreneurs but in this situation combined with a strong social component as Sir Richard Branson often uses himself to convey the group’s message into the media or as a tool to promote the group’s brand. Is this kind of strategic thinking that explains the high level of unrelated diversification of the group that we are exploring in this report. 3. Organizational Analysis and Corporate Strategy Values The Virgin Group’s overall brand identity is built upon the founder Richard Branson’s philosophy which states that â€Å"if you keep your staff happy then the customer will be happy, and if you keep the customer happy then the shareholders are happy†, â€Å"shape the business around people†, â€Å"Build don’t buy†, â€Å"Be the best, not the biggest†, â€Å"Pioneer, don’t follow the leader† or â€Å"staff first, then customers and shareholders† are some the main guidelines of Richard Branson and we can see it as some of the company values. This underlying belief transcends into each one of Virgin’s subsidiaries and into each individual organizational culture. This is evident in the way in which members of the Virgin group interact with one another, as it is apparent that all members at Virgin agree strongly about certain beliefs, values, and assumptions, which are reinforced within the company. Virgin has continually retained a strong belief that it is their employees who: deliver brilliant customer service; give the company its personality, shape its culture, and innovate. They are viewed as Virgin’s greatest asset and as such, management believes that employees should be treated with respect. Management looks after their employees’ welfare and allows them the freedom to grow and be themselves. Virgin actively encourages personal expression, whether it is in their speech, creative and conceptual thinking, or dress code. It is these fundamental values and beliefs that have allowed Virgin to thrive in such a competitive environment, challenge new opportunities and excel in its markets, while still continuing to operate with integrity. As we know the core competencies of a company should meet three requirements: -Significant value creation for the clients Difficulty of imitation by competitors -Access to new markets As we look into Virgin we can see that each subsidiary shares a set of values that are continually strengthened: value for money, excellent quality products, brilliant customer service, innovation, competition and consistently having fun throughout the process. Virgin would only put its name to a project if it met four out of five criteria: it must be innov ative, challenge authority, offer value for money by being better than the competitors, be good quality, and the market must be growing. In such a large conglomerate empire as the Virgin Group, these broad set of fundamental beliefs continually work to strengthen the company’s brand as well as its culture. 3. Corporate Strategy formulation: Diversification Entering new markets using the brand Virgin is the strong asset of the group. Diversification is the name of this process in which Virgin leveraged his brand recognition as a form of growth strategy for the company. It seeks to increase profitability through greater sales volume obtained from new products and new markets. There are two kind of reasons for which a company look for diversification: – Defensive reasons which may be spreading the risk of market contraction, or being forced to diversify when current product or current market orientation seems to provide no further opportunities for growth. – Offensive reasons may be getting into new positions, taking opportunities that offers greater profitability than expansion opportunities, or using retained cash that exceeds total expansion needs. Instead of focusing in increasing the main competencies of their initial core business Virgin focused in diversifying risk acquiring new skills, new techniques and new facilities hence through an offensive strategy. Therefore, they followed not the internal development of new products or markets or acquisition of new firms but alliance or joint ventures with a complementary company which could enable them to operate in a new and unrelated market based on a set of attributes and values rather than a market sector. It was about being the consumer's champion! We can all this type of strategy as Conglomerate diversification (or lateral diversification). The corporate strategy of the Virgin Group is to operate like a venture capital firm based on the Virgin brand. This strategy involves non-related diversification at the individual business unit level. By leveraging on the Virgin Brand which has established prominence in the minds of consumers, Virgin is able to enter new business areas s haking up existing orders. Branson’s has entered in a business after another in which he perceived a set of consumers that were being underserved by a complacent and dominant player. The unique Virgin culture also allows Virgin to execute its ventures very effectively which were inspired in the keiretsu system as Branson was a convicted fan of the Japanese approach to business and â€Å"their commitment to long-term development and focus on organic growth†. The similarities are in a sense that Virgin is a group of companies pretty much diversified which have formal links in management and financial and also share a common identity. The formal linkages between the companies are, as we saw in the case, the ownership, the brand and the management. In order to protect the brand Virgin and Branson’s name the group is keeping some companies that are running with losses. Speaking in financials they are selling some of the most profitable companies as Virgin Records to finance the new start-ups. This is due to the fact that they identify a company operating in a segment which is clearly moving toward maturity to decline and instead of keeping it they sell moving to a new and growing market through diversification. The Virgin Group covers a wide range of industries-from Travel and Tourism (Limousines, Vacations, etc. , Leisure and Pleasure (Spa, Games, etc. ), Social and Environment (Green Fund, Virgin Earth), Beverages (wines and soft drinks), Media and Telecommunications (Radio, Broadband, Mobile, etc), Books, Clothing, Finance and Money, and Health (Health Bank, Life Care). But despite its diversification in terms of industries and products, it never diversified its brand names. All of its services and products in every in dustry have the name Virgin affixed to it. Virgin is a strong but universal brand name; so universal that many analysts believe the group should franchise to others unrelated companies. The Virgin brand made it possible to overcome barriers to entry in various industries and sectors and has been the group’s most important asset, together with Richard Branson. 4. Virgin Cola: Overview of Strategy Formulation Virgin Cola was created up during the early 1990s in a joint venture with Cott, a Canadian company that specializes in bottling own-label drinks for the UK market. Cott was looking for a major international brand that could have global appeal. That’s when Richard Branson attempted to extend the Virgin franchise into the cola market. Using the brand pattern in the Virgin Group’s diversification strategy, Branson claimed to fight the incumbents, Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola in alliance with an organization with core competencies in this area. Within a few months of its release, Virgin Cola had a 50% market share in the outlets that sold it. As Virgin stands for value of money, quality, innovation, fun and a sense of competitive challenge they focus in the brand awareness to create the differentiation from the main competitors. Cross-promotion has been Branson's main weapon, serving Virgin Cola on Virgin Atlantic flights and (until they closed down) at Virgin Cinemas. In fact, we can see that this pattern was repeated successively in each new diversification, in each one was followed by expansions of the products markets, based either on new strategic alliances or within internal development and Virgin Cola followed the trend and also increased the portfolio and created new products (flavor expansions). The strong brand positioning and the innovative character were the key issues in the product differentiation options which can be can be explained due to the client’s linkage with the High risk perception associated with the product’s potential malfunction and the client’s low level of confidence in the choice of the product. We can also observe several stages of internationalization to countries where there was an Anglo-Saxon matrix, in this case France, Belgium, South Africa and later on the US. We can also see that there are still some actions regarding vertical integration, but more with a commercial purpose rather than operational. So far it has failed to overtake Pepsi in the UK as Richard Branson claimed it would, and unlike Pepsi or Coke it's relatively hard to find cans of Virgin Cola on sale anywhere as they have a weakness in distribution channels.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Client Centered Therapy

Jessica Jeffers It is inevitable that in psychotherapy there are numerous theories. Theories arise out of scholarly investigations of ideas on human behavior. Human behavior is an extraordinarily interesting subject and therefore produces a plethora of ideas from a variety of theorists. These theorists are influenced by their education, culture, and time period. One of the most influential, empathetically understanding, theorists is Carl Rogers. His contributions to human behavior have changed many of the theories that preceded him, and contributed his theory to many theories that followed him.I want to explore Client/Person Centered Therapy. This is a type of therapy that was pioneered by Carl Rogers. This therapy is different because as the name suggests it solely focuses on the client. ‘In focusing on the client, the client’s feelings are deeply explored. The assumption is however, that the client was never able to have their feelings heard by the people surrounding t hem. Person Centered Therapy would allow the client to then be able to express their feelings openly.According to Strupp (1971), â€Å"psychotherapeutic relationship is in principle indistinguishable from any good human relationship in which a person feels fully accepted, respected, and prized† (p. 39). Thus, there must be a therapeutic alliance between therapist and client. This therapeutic alliance should creative an environment for the client in which the client feels the therapist is judgment-free. I find that Roger's theory to be interesting and seemingly affective. It makes sense that a change in a clients negative relationship patterns would allow freedom for the client to express themselves emotionally.According to Strupp (1971), â€Å"The client, therefore, is not a patient who is sick and who is in need of treatment, but he is a person whose earlier experiences in life have made him defensive, severed him from free and open communication with his peers, and prevent ed him from realizing his potential as a fully functioning person†(p. 39). Thus, the client would have to be categorized with the assumption that he has experienced in his past â€Å"severed free and open communication with his peers†. This would mean that a client with clear and reciprocated communication with her loved ones would not find se in Client Centered Therapy. According to Truscott (2010), â€Å"our efforts to feel good about ourselves we tend to try to incorporate others' expectations? thereby denying our true selves and adopting instead a conditional self? resulting in feelings of disorganization and emotional pain. If, on the other hand, we experience genuineness, nonjudgmental caring, and empathy in our relationships with others, then we can achieve our potential as persons† (p. 70-71). Thus, a client with emotional support can manage his feelings easier then someone without any emotional support.This still leaves the client with emotional support with the expectation that she should not have any difficulty with expressing her emotions. It is apparent that Rogers main goal was to create an environment for the client in which he will eventually be able to independently understand and express his feelings. Truscott (2010) reported according to the â€Å"person-centered, humanistic worldview† that, When we are fully functioning we are then able to make healthy decisions and set goals for ourselves that are congruent with our personal possibilities.The therapist, therefore, does not set goals for the client of solving or managing problems. Rather, clients who are able to become more fully functioning will decide for themselves how best to cope with problems and participate in a satisfying life. (p. 71) This independence that Roger's wanted to invoke in his clients has functionality. A person who was not able to function independently will be able to do so, which in turn can have powerful effects. The question is however, w ithout therapeutic goals the lines of recovery seem to be infinite.Thus, if a client is not moving toward a tangible goal, then she is not moving forward. As an argument to that, I would contend that the client would move forward because they would progress in their ability to recognize their emotional turmoil’s. Rogers may not have worked with his clients to produce and obtain goals, but he did have a ultimate goal in his therapeutic work. According to Rogers, â€Å"They [clients] are then able to accept themselves as they are and to commit themselves to becoming more like they can and want to be† (as cited in Truscott, 2010, p. 2). The client is in turn aided by the therapist in becoming as authentic as possible. Thus this authenticity would provide the client with the ability to be true to themselves and their feelings. I find this to be useful in allowing the client to process their internal feelings, externally. According to Truscott (2010), â€Å"Therapists must be willing and able to listen without prejudice, judgment, or agenda if the client is to have any chance of feeling truly understood and accepted.Positive feelings, negative feelings, and silence must be acceptable to the therapist† (p. 73). This is interesting because it requires that the therapists become void of any judgments. To me this seems like a difficult task to accomplish because of the nature of judgments. Understandably so, the therapist would automatically make judgments of the client, as a natural inclination even with the best intentions against judgments. So, what kind of a therapist must one be to establish a patient centered therapy?According to Truscott (2010), â€Å"Because person-centered therapy is, at its heart, a highly collaborative approach, three qualities of the therapist must be evident in relationship with the client† (p. 73). Truscott (2005) reports that these qualities are: genuineness, unconditional positive regard and emphatic understa nding. Truscott (2005) explains, â€Å"Genuineness requires a significant depth of self- knowledge. It is only a fully functioning person who can be totally genuine† (p. 73). To add (1971) contends, â€Å"†¦ he most basic ingredient of therapeutic success, is characterized by the therapist's openness to another person's experience and a keen awareness of himself and the client's experience† (p. 41). , the therapist must be very aware of himself in order to be present on behalf of the client. Truscott (2005) also explains unconditional positive regard â€Å"It means that the client feels understood in a nonjudgmental way† (p. 74). Thus, if the therapist is completely judgment free, the client is more likely to express themselves without a fear of being ridiculed for their thoughts.Lastly Truscott (2010) explains empathetic understanding, This means that the therapist senses accurately the feelings and personal meanings that the client is experiencing and com municates this understanding to the client. The following two things are important about this: (a) that the empathy be accurate and (b) that the empathy be made known to the client. (p. 74) It is important to understand that empathy is important in all therapeutic relationships. It is a core value a therapist must hold in order to create a proper alliance with the client.It is especially important with the client centered therapy, because empathy is a core concept in the client centered therapy. Rogers’s theoretical approach functioned well for the goals of the client finally being able to discover key themes about themselves. Accordingly Raskin, Rogers ;ump; Witty (2011) contend that â€Å"The common thread is the need to understand the client's relationship to the problem, illness, or self destructive behavior; to collaborate with the client in self-healing and growth†¦ † (p. 172).Thus, the therapist must combine with the client to put in a joint effort in the h ealing process. This collaboration seems most efficient because it does not allow for a false belief that the therapist will solve all of the client's problems. Instead, it should permit the client to feel that she has support to dive into emotions she might have been afraid to do so before entering client centered therapy. It is interesting to note according to Raskin et al. ( 2011), â€Å"Our basic practice [client centered therapy] remains true to the core conditions no matter who our client may be.We also assert that our ability to form an initial therapeutic relationship depends on our own openness to and appreciation of respect for all kinds of difference† (p. 183). I believe that the cultural diversity that CCT maintains is important in a multiplicity open therapeutic environment. The implications for a non discriminatory form of therapy are that it can be used across populations. This allows for broader use of this theory and the chances for positive outcomes is incre ased because the availability.

Racial Injustice In To Kill A Mockingbird Essay

To Kill a Mockingbird, by Nelle Harper Lee, was written in 1960. During the 1960’s great movements towards equality and integration were taking place, there was great social injustice towards African-Americans. This was Lee’s entire plot of the book he wanted to show how even when all evidence proofed a black man innocent when his word is faced the that of a white person or person of the privileged society, he will be found guilty. In To Kill a Mockingbird Lee wrote about a black man named Tom Robinson, who has been accused of raping a very poor white girl named Mayella Ewell, when in all actuality he did nothing but help her out. She made sexual advances towards him, and as he rejected Mayella’s father walked in and became outraged and began to beat her, scared half to death Tom ran, and later was wrongly accused, then convicted. This makes me ask, Can justice ever be colorblind? Being colorblind is not recognizing racial or class distinctions, this is an important part of finding true justice. Justice is the upholding of what is just, especially fair treatment and due reward in accordance with honor, standards, or law. People cannot be treated fairly when they are being judged by a bias society, especially when the bias is against them. People often relate with people with similar backgrounds, to the jury the Ewells had the most similar so it was only natural that they would be looked at as being truthful. ‘First of all,’ he said, ‘If you can learn a simple trick, Scout, you’ll get along a lot better with all kinds of folks. You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view-‘ ‘Sir?’ ‘-until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.'† Page 30. There Atticus was telling Scout the importance of being well rounded and learning about everyone, basically walking in there shows before you can fairly judge them. I don’t think Atticus could have put it any better, if people would just take the initiative to see things in the eyes of others before judging them it would make the judicial process a lot more fair. Although as a collective group of human beings, blacks and whites are more similar than different. We all have to look at the differences we have, that are placed on us by society and try to draw parallels. Once we find a parallel with these different groups we begin to stop looking at them as being a certain color and begin to look at them as being our equals or neighbors. When you really don’t know a group of people and all you do is hear stories about them, you allow that to shape your image of them. Such as Scout did with Boo, she had never seen him she was only told stories about and she still was terrified of him. â€Å"‘Thank who?’ I asked. ‘Boo Radly. You were so busy looking at the fire you didn’t know it when he put the blanket around you.’ My stomach turned to water and I nearly threw up when Jem held out the blanket and crept toward me. ‘He sneaked out of the house-turn ’round-sneaked up, an’ went like this!'† Page 72. She didn’t even know Boo all she did was heard stories, as a human she allowed the stories to shape a visual image for her. She saw Boo as a scary and inhuman, only because she didn’t know him, just like the people who held Tom on trail didn’t know him all they knew is stories about him and other black people so when they saw him on trail they saw him as another â€Å"ËÅ"Boo’. And, they judged him on the stories they hears about blacks not the validity of his suit. â€Å"Mr. Ewell wrote on the back of the envelope and looked up complacently to see Judge Taylor looking at him as if he were some fragrant gardenia in full bloom on the witness stand , to see Mr. Gilmer half-sitting, half standing at his table. The jury was watching him, one man leaning over with his hands over the railing. ‘What’s so intrestin’?’ he asked. ‘You’re left handed Mr. Ewell,’ said Judge Taylor.† Page 177. Mr. Ewell was a white man, he was also proven to be left handed in the heated court trail, this didn’t make any sense at first until it was proven that Mayella was beating by a left handed man, and Tom couldn’t use his left hand. Yet they did manage to find him guilty simply because they couldn’t relate to him because he was a black man he was the â€Å"ËÅ"Boo’. In the movie A Time To Kill, justice also isn’t blind. In the movie Samuel L.  Jackson’s daughter was raped by two white men, knowing that the men would get off if taken to trail Samuel took justice into his own hands and killed the both of them. If he hadn’t of killed the two man most likely they would have gotten off free, because they were in the deep south and blacks were looked at as less than human. If it hadn’t of been for his lawyer he might have gotten the chair, but his lawyer made sure everyone saw his murders as being an act of justice. All the jurors were made to think like a father who’s pride and joy had been raped, and once they did this they did begin to see him as a person. That doesn’t mean that the justice was blind to his color because had it been a white girl in the first place none of this would had happened, justice would have prevailed the first time, and he wouldn’t of had to take matters into his own hands. In both the movie and the novel the truth was there to be seen my the judging party, the parities just had to look past the color boundaries and accept it for the justice to be found. In the novel To Kill a Mockingbird the truth wasn’t found in time, however in the movie A Time To Kill justice was eventually found only after the loss of lives though. The death of the truly guilty party lead to the truth in both cases though. Recently in Cincinnati we have being going through a lot of civil unrest, and we have really been concentrating on color. Our judicial system has really had to look at race and racial profiling, because Cincinnatians are really tired of the justice system not being blind to race or class. With cases such as the Timothy Thomas case Cincinnatians have began to seek awnsers, and one sure fire awnsers is that race does matter. Now the people of Cincinnati are trying to get to a point where we can say it doesn’t. True justice can only be found when, race isn’t a factor that will play against someone being treated fairly. For race not to be a factor people must distinguish the difference between a person and the stereotypes they know about the persons race, and only know the facts about the struggle the particular person has had. As the book To Kill A Mockingbird said it is a sin to kill a mockingbird. The mockingbird being a innocent person that has done no wrong, just because a mockingbird is a bird doesn’t make it evil or worthy of death. Justice should be colorblind, its stated in the  Constitution but it isn’t always, in fact a lot of the time color is a major contributing factor, maybe as the world grows into one community everyone will drop the color barriers and race will become obsolete.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Financial Re-Engineering with Respect to Funding of New Projects of Al Essay

Financial Re-Engineering with Respect to Funding of New Projects of Al Masaken - Essay Example Being a subsidiary and a group company of Aerated Concrete Industries Company K S C C (ACICO), Al Masaken Real Estate Company has created for itself a remarkable position in the booming real estate sector in the Gulf region.The company has so far executed various prestigious construction projects worth close to $ 300 million with a construction area extending up to 291,143 Square meters. Backed up by a good design and engineering team the company has crossed over the initial struggles and has reached the position to take up construction projects of high rise buildings on its own financial strength. As a strategic financial initiative, it was suggested that Al Masaken is promoted as an independent business entity and raise the additional funds required for its proposed high rise construction projects following the IPO route supported by the group image of ACICO. This case study details the circumstances which led to such a decision of providing the individual status to Al Masaken and the various other factors which contributed to the proposal.Specialized in Housing/Villa projects, Al Masaken was established in 1998 as a part of ACICO group with a 25% ownership from ACICO. Having sailed through the initial hiccups the company specialized in the new wave construction of vertical housing by the year 2003. Being one of the subsidiaries of the ACICO, the financial strategy was to obtain short-term loans to finance the purchase of the real estate properties and for the process of construction activity and repay the loan within a maximum period of one and a half years. Financing Strategy at the Holding company: ACICO adopted a financial policy of long-term borrowing for its other manufacturing activities and short-term borrowing for the construction activity.

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Detective methods Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Detective methods - Essay Example Poe uses Dupin as a catalyst for this evolution in criminal science; however, there are clearly peripheral distinctions and benefits that are a direct result of this innovation. The high level of competency and discipline that Dupin uses to raise the level of criminal science standards in addition to the goal and initiatives of those working in law enforcement is highly indicative of how Dupin views the state of law enforcement. Poe uses the strategies and algorithms of Dupin as a guiding light of change to the institutional culture of law enforcement training. Every generation and century must allow for changes in the culture of training in regards to law enforcement or any other significant discipline and institution. These factors and realities have a direct correlation in the societal changes that must occur through variances in societal interaction and cooperation that is used to attain the maxim benefits of a cosmopolitan society. In regards to law enforcement, this same societal interaction and cosmopolitan environment is required and necessary for continued success and efficiency in all facets of law enforcement. Edgar Allan Poe was clearly ahead of his time in ascertaining the societal principles that develop competency and quality in life and work. Poe/Doyle 3 Analysis: Arthur Conan Doyle While Edgar Allan Poe's C. Auguste Dupin represents the modular and separatist out of the box thinkers that are catalysts for change and innovation in specific disciplines and society, Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes represents the competent leaders that must remain an integral part of the systemic infrastructure of those same disciplines and societies in order ensure that change and innovation coming from both realms are understood and articulated in continuity with those changes and innovation. Doyle strengthens this point by pairing Holmes with Dr. Watson who benefits from the wealth of knowledge that emanates from Holmes in addition to the societal interaction that undoubtedly promotes professional reciprocity and decorum in every sense of the word. Theoretically, this has a correlation to how change must be inclusive concerning subordinates in order to keep the infrastructure of law enforcement institutions strong. This also facilitates an environment where the law enforcem ent institution will benefit from a talent pool that dramatically increases the amount of innovative options and variables that will keep law enforcement agencies relevant to the societal times in which they exist and are tasked with defending.