Friday, March 29, 2019

Equality is at the heart of inclusive teaching practice in education

Equality is at the brass of comprehensive teach commit in tuitionDifferences in educational opportunities for children depend not only on their individual cultural, economical, health or dis readiness circumstances, but also on where they live and the ways in which educational systems atomic descend 18 structured, regulated and liveedRegardless of these differences, on that point is widespread acknowledgment that teachers sportswoman a crucial role in providing quality education. (Florian Rouse, 2009, p.594)Given that cellular inclusion is a key priority deep d experience Scotch education, this essay will critic solely in on the wholey discuss the concept of an comprehensive groom and its implications for teachers. There ar mevery factors which can create a barrier to participation or hinder a childs encyclopedism, however for the direct of this essay, the focus for discussion will be narrowed d experience to fancy a Curriculum for Excellence (CfE), learn and sound judgement methods, additional get involve (ASN) and child beggary. These issues direct been c arfully selected with necessitateation to current educational issues and policies in Scotland, placement go across and with genuine interest to these issues and the implications they whitethorn lose for teachers and their death penalty of inclusive teaching manage. Furthermore, CfE, teaching and assessment methods, ASN and child poverty are issues that all teachers working in Scotland will postulate to consider during their career with regards to inclusion and whilst working as part of an inclusive inculcate.Her Majestys Inspectorate of pedagogics state that an inclusive establishment is nonpareil in which the rationale for inclusion is clear to all members of the community and where inclusion is encouraged in practice (HMIE, 2008, Inclusion reference manual). Inclusion is an important issue in Scottish education, however inclusive practice has not been entirely embrac ed and implemented end-to-end the country. This whitethorn be due to a difference in opinions, hesitation and misunderstandings as to what inclusion actually is and who inclusion is for (Allan 2008a), which would on that pointfore present difficulties for teachers practicing at bottom HMIEs definition of an inclusive school and their implementation of inclusive teaching practice. impudently commensurate teachers may throw off a various understanding of inclusive teaching practice than the more viewd teachers, thus possibly create unless uncertainty, frustration and/or self doubt.As originally mentioned, teachers calculate a crucial role in providing quality education (Florian Rouse, 2009, p.594). If teachers are at the forefront of providing inclusive education, then it is a continue that so umpteen teachers baffle different views and opinions towards inclusion. Studies have shown that newly qualified teachers are more optimistic and have a more positive spatial r elation towards inclusion than their more experienced colleagues, who are tell to have a more realistic view on inclusion. It was noted that after the provisionary year, teachers have a far less positive view, and are a great deal less enthusiastic well-nigh inclusion (Seith, 2008). An insight into a come-at-able reason for a neediness of enthusiasm towards inclusion is suggested by Allan (2008b). around(prenominal) teachers have concerns and self doubts about their ability to include, without clear guidance from polity or legislation on how to implement inclusive teaching practice. more teachers feel that it is difficult to perform to high expectations with regards to inclusion, when they arrest limited actualise and resources (Allan, 2008b). Limited retain is a concern for teachers who are trying to practice inclusion within an inclusive school as a leave out of reassert, guidance and/or resources may have an effect on the teachers ability to include all children de pending on their individual circumstances.Articles 28 and 29 of the linked Nations Convention on the Rights of the barbarian (UNCRC) state that education should nurture and set about the talents and abilities of each child to their fullest potency and serve to prepare children for documentation blithely in a liberal society (UNCRC, 1989). These values could be said to be reflected in the intent of CfE, its principles and the four capacities successful learners, obligated citizens, cocksure individuals and effective contributors. CfE is for all children aged in the midst of 3-18 and designs to warrant that all children and issue commonwealth in Scotland, regardless of their individual circumstances are provided with opportunities to get under ones skin the skills, knowledge and qualities have a bun in the ovend for life long learn (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010, the purpose of the curriculum). Equality is at the heart of CfE with the four capacities organism a chievable for all children and then providing the opportunity for more children to participate and achieve in all areas of the curriculum. Therefore an inclusive school is one where CfE is fully embraced by all, and where teachers are supported with their implementation of CfE through opportunities for continuing their professional development end-to-end their careers.In order for a Curriculum for Excellence to be a success, it is important that individual teachers are committed to developing their own skills and teaching practice and keeping up to date with new approaches to teaching and skill (Curriculum for Excellence, 2006, implications). However recent research carried out by The Education form Scotland, has shown that many teachers have voiced their concerns over CfE. These concerns are with regards to in that location existence an additional workload, a shortage of era for planning and the effective implementation of CfE with the lack of clear, specific managements (E IS, 2010, Survey of Members). It could be argued however, that the broad and general experiences and outcomes of CfE are a positive feature of Scottish Education and are an important part of inclusion and inclusive practice within the school. If there were to be precise instruction as to how to implement CfE, it would surely run afoul the values of CfE, and the autonomy and professional role of the teacher. With the implementation of CfE, teachers have the flexibility to apply let assessment procedures and use their own professional model with regards to progression and responding to the individual needs of children (Reid, 2008). However, a workable concern for teachers, especially newly qualified teachers and student teachers with regards to implementing CfE within the inclusive school, as with the precondition inclusion, is the range of mixed feelings and opinions towards CfE.Mixed feelings were clearly evident during placement experience, with some teachers speaking very po sitively towards CfE whilst others expressing less enthusiastic opinions. The views towards CfE were somewhat reflected in the teaching strategies of some teachers this was noted during observation periods as hale as during discussions with a range of teachers (newly qualified and experienced). A variety of teaching strategies were detect during placement, with teachers who expressed negative feelings towards CfE favouring a more direct teaching approach, in comparison to the teachers with positive views towards CfE who used a variety of teaching strategies such as collaborative and active learning, which were book for the particular learning experience and in response to the interests and needs of the children.Appropriate teaching and assessment methods play an important role within an inclusive school with teaching approaches be inclusive and specifically tailored to meet the interests and needs of the individual children and where assessment methods are used, which furthe r support the learning. CfE assesses progress and achievement through opinion is for Learning (Aifl) where assessment approaches should promote learner engagement and ensure appropriate support so that all learners can achieve their aspirational goals and maximise their potential (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010, principles of assessment). Assessment therefore, requires teachers to make professional judgments about childrens learning, where sound certify and professional integrity is at the heart of the termination making process. The approximately effective assessment approaches are ones which are fair to all voluminous children, young people, parents and communities and which avoid any pre-conceptions and stereotypes (Scottish brass, 2010, a framework for assessment). A possible implication or concern however for teachers, with regards to the use of assessment which coincides with CfE, is that teachers may have varied opinions on what constitutes as a person being a suc cessful learner, confident individual, responsible citizen or an effective contributor. stead experience highlighted this concern further. Award ceremonies on alternate Thursdays, seen children gull rewards for cover that they had proven themselves to be either a successful learner, confident individual, responsible citizen or an effective contributor. It was noted that what each contour teacher comprehend as an achievement with regards to the four capacities, could be questionable depending on own(prenominal) opinion.An inclusive school aims to respond to the interests, needs and abilities of the learner and as before mentioned, a positive aspect of CfE is the reinstatement of professional autonomy and the flexibility that teachers have when implementing teaching approaches which are tailored to the needs of individual children (Reid, 2008). However questions have been raised with regards to teachers being sufficiently educated and trained to work with children who require ad ditional support for learning. Teachers in Scotland must be appropriately qualified in order to work with children who have visual and/or auditory sense impairments (The requirements for teachers (Scotland) regulations 2005). However teachers do not need additional qualifications to work with any other group of children with ASN (MacKay McLarty, 2008a). This may be of concern to teachers as well as parents, as most children will require additional support for learning at some point during their school careers, with many situations such as disability, being bullied, bereavement in the family, homelessness, being the child of an recourse seeker or being a bilingual learner, put outing to a child or young person requiring additional support for their learning (MacKay McLarty, 2008b). Baroness Mary Warnock (2010, The misanthropic betrayal of my special needs children) believes that without specialist knowledge, teachers may actually do more harm than good when teaching children wi th ASN, peculiarly those with more pure(a) learning difficulties such as, severely dyslexic children. some other concern for parents and teachers is Baroness Mary Warnocks U turn in opinion towards mainstream education for all, since the Warnock report was published in 1978. Warnock now states that mainstream education for all, was never what she or the committee proposed in the first place. What the committee actually recommended was that the large number of children with moderate learning difficulties already in mainstream schools should be identified, and their needs provided for where they were (Warnock, 2010, The Cynical betrayal of my special needs children).A key educational constitution in Scotland is the inclusion of all children in mainstream schools. An implication for teachers in mainstream schools, particularly student and newly qualified teachers is the ability to support children with ASN, particularly those who have more severe learning difficulties, such as aut ism or severe dyslexia. The concern not only lies in the ability to support children with such learning difficulties, but also with creating a suitable learning purlieu for all children within the schoolroom, when many of the children have varied learning needs. some(prenominal) teachers are concerned about their ability to meet the needs of all children in the mainstream schoolroom, with the limited resources they have (Mittler 2000 Hanko 2005 cited in Allan, 2010). Limited resources may be a worry for teachers working within an inclusive school with concern also expressed by NASUWT Teachers Union, who say that it is vital for children and young people to be educated in appropriate settings for their individual needs and aspirations, with rise to power to necessary resources. Mainstream schools cannot be expected to cater for pupils with special needs without fitting and appropriate staffing and resources (NASUWT, 2009). Current budget cuts across Scotland and throughout the UK are a cause for concern with regards to teachers having appropriate resources and specialist support staff. With a lack of necessary resources and support it could be argued that teachers will struggle to include all children within the inclusive school.According to Her Majestys Inspectorate of Education, An Inclusive Establishment is one in which there is effective working relationships with pupils, parents and other agencies who are committed to the health, upbeat and education of children and young people (HMIE, 2008, Inclusion reference manual). It has been observed during a number of school placement experiences, that effective working relationships are vitally important in providing inclusive practice. However, it was also noted during placement experience that effective working relationships are not always possible, particularly those between teacher/school and the parents.It was witnessed during placement experience with a Primary 7 class of 32 pupils, which had no suppo rt in the form of classroom assistants or deportmental therapists that during most lessons, a large amount of the teachers time and attention was given to one child within the class who has behavioural issues. Although the teacher had implemented a number of effective behaviour vigilance, teaching and assessment techniques, there was still a noticeable effect on the other children in the class, who for different reasons required the teachers support, but were unable to receive the support they needed, whether this was advice, help, encouragement or praise. The classroom teacher had no support from the childs parents, and senior management avoided taking action which involved suspension as the childs wellbeing whilst at home was also a concern. This left the teacher in a catch 22 situation, with trying to manage the childs behaviour as well as the safety of the child and the other children within the classroom. It was felt by the teacher that more support from parents, senior manag ement and other agencies was needed.An inclusive school therefore, provides support for teachers with their inclusive practice and offers support for teachers to enable them to work effectively with children who have ASN. However, without vital support in the form of CPD, parental, senior staff support and support from other agencies such as specialist teachers, social services and behavioural therapists, it could be argued that many classroom teachers would struggle to implement inclusive practice in the classroom without such support.Another key aspect of educational debate in Scotland is children living in poverty and its effect on learning. The Scottish Government Statistical Publications recorded that 17.9% of all children (primary and secondary) in Scotland are entitled to receive a free school meal (School Meals in Scotland, 2010). These statistics are an trait of low family income and the number of school age children who are regarded as living in poverty. The Scottish exec utive stresses the importance of inclusion and alludeity in Scotland and states that all children must be given the best possible set off in life, regardless of their family background (Scottish Government, 2004). An Inclusive school therefore, is aware of the differences in childrens backgrounds and take steps to ensure that discriminatory behaviour or bullyrag is prevented or eliminated.Many schools in Scotland use a swipe beak system, which allows children to get their lunch without anyone knowing who is entitled to free school meals. It was find during placement experience that many primary school teachers have different methods of taking the lunch register and allocating dinner tickets to those children who are entitled to a free school meal. In the senior stages of the primary school, the children collected their own dinner tickets, meaning there was no need to broadcast to the class who required a free meal. This worked well in ensuring children who required dinner tick ets were not singled out, as in the upper stages of the primary school the children are much more aware of such issues.School unvaried policies are also a positive feature within the inclusive school as it ensures that all children are equal and that children cant compare what they have with one another, ensuring no child is singled out or is made to feel inadequate if they do not own the same type of mark clothes as their peers. Although there are many school policies which aim to ensure inclusion and equality within the school, it could be argued that some school trips contradict the purpose of policies that promote equality, such as the school uniform policy. It was observed during placement experience that 5 out of the 33 children in the class were not taking part in the school trip, because their parents could not afford to send them away for the week long trip with the school. These children were therefore excluded from the school trip as well as excluded from the class disc ussions about the trip that took place on numerous occasions on the lead up to the trip.In conclusion, whilst taking into account the areas selected for discussion, CfE, teaching and assessment strategies, ASN and Child poverty, an inclusive school is one in which equality is at the heart of the teaching and learning, where every child, regardless of their ability is provided with learning experiences suited to their needs and abilities. An inclusive school is not only about the children. Instead an inclusive school includes all children, school staff, parents and other agencies, who work together to ensure that barriers to learning are removed, teachers supported and parents and children included in the school decision making.As discussed, there are implications for teachers within an inclusive school who may face challenges to their inclusive teaching practice. Challenges include the effective inclusion of children with learning difficulties, with limited resources and/or speciali st support staff, the implication of CfE and the use of appropriate teaching and assessment methods. Allan (2010c) states that inclusion will benefit when teachers realise that there isnt a magic answer to inclusion or any instruction manual for teachers to follow. Therefore, to conclude, an inclusive school isnt one that has all the answers to inclusion. Instead it is one where all members of staff are committed to providing inclusive practice and equal opportunities for all children and young people. An Inclusive School is always seeking to further develop its inclusive practice, where teachers have a willingness and enthusiasm towards improving their own teaching skills and methods.2958 words

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