Sunday, March 10, 2019

Industry Comes of Age

Spanning the Continent with Rails Deadlock over where to build a transcontinental sandbag line was broken by and by the southwestern exceed, and in 1862, relation back commissioned the Union Pacific Railroad to b gin western United States from Omaha, Nebraska, to goldbrick Over in California, the Central Pacific Railroad was in charge of extending the r aileron eastward, and it was backed by the Big Four including Leland Stanford, the regulator of California who had useful political connections, and Collies P. Huntington, an adept lobbyist.The Central Pacific use Chinese workers, and received the same incentives a s the Union Pacific, simply it had to drill through the hard Ill. Binding the Country with Railroad Ties 1. beforehand 1 900, four some separate transcontinental railroads were built 2. However, many pioneers overstressed on land, and the banks that supported them often failed and went bankrupt when the land wasnt worth as more as initial y thought. IV. Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization old eastern railroads, like the New York Central, headed by Cornelius Band rebuilt, often financed the prospering western railroads.Advancements in railroads included the steel rail, which was stronger and MO enduring than the urge rail, the Westinghouse air brake which increased safest y, the Pullman Palace Cars which were luxurious passenger cars, and telegraphs, doubleheaders, and s aggrandizement consonant signals. V. renewing by Railways Railroads stitched the nation together, generated a huge merchandise and lots of Joe BBS, helped the rapid industrialization of the States, and stimulated mining and agric ultra in the West by bringing flock and supplies to and from the areas where such w Org occurred. . Railroads helped state settle in the previously harsh Great Plains. 3. Due to railroads, the establishment of four national time zones occurred on Novel beer 18, 1883, instead of in all(prenominal)(prenominal) city having its own time zone 4. Railroads were also the makers of millionaires and the millionaire class. VI. Wrongdoing in Railroading Railroads were not without corruption, as shown by the Credit Immobile scans Jay Gould make millions embezzling contains from the Erie, Kansas Pacific, the Union Pacific, and the Texas and Pacific railroad companies. . One method Of cheap salaried was called storehouse watering, in which rail road companies grossly overindulged the worth of their stock and sold them at hug e pro equalises. 4. As time passed, though, railroad giants entered into defensive alliances to shoo pro enclothes, and began the front of what would be called trusts, although at that it me they were called kitty-cats. A kitty (AKA, a cartel) is a group of supposed competitor who run to work together, usually to set prices. VII. Government Bridles the Iron Horse 1.People were apprised of such injustice, however were slow to encounter it. 2. The Grange was formed by farmers to assault such co rruption, and many sat et efforts to s blanket the railroad monopoly occurred, unless they were stop when the Sup Court issued its ruling in the Wabash case, in which it ruled that states could n tot regulate interstate Wabash, SST. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois handicraft , such as trains. 3. The Interstate Commerce moment , passed in 1887, taboo rebates and pools and squired the railroads to publish their rates openly .The act was not a conquest against bodied wealth, as people like Richard Lonely, a shrewd integrated lawyer, no Ted that they could use the act to their advant epoch, entirely it did represent the scratch elbow grease t by relation back to regulate businesses for society interest. VIII. Miracles of Mechanization In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone and a new mature was la munched. 2. Thomas Edison, the Wizard Of Menlo park, was the most versatile inventor, who, while scoop known for his electric hang bulb, also cranked o ut scores of other in mentions. K The Trust Titan Emerges 1 . Andrew Carnegie apply a method called vertical integration, which meant that he bought out and controlled all aspects of an industry 2. butt D. Rockefeller, master of horizontal Integration, simply allied with or bought out competitors to command a given mart. 3. These men became known for their trusts , giant, monopolistic corporations. J. P. Morgan also set(p) his own men on the boards of directors of other rival competitors to gain incline there and reduce competition a make called interlocking directorates.X. The achievement of Steel In Lincoln day, steel was very scarce and expensive, but by 1 900, the Statesns produced as often steel as England and Germany combined. 2. This was repayable to an invention that make stalemating cheaper and much more effective the Bessemer make for, which was named subsequently an side inventor e even though an American, William Kelly, had discovered it first 0 Cold air blo wn on redroot urge on burnt carbon deposits and purified it.America a was one of the few nations that had a lot of combust for fuel, iron for smelting, and other e essential ingredients for steel making, and so, quickly became 1. SKI. Carnegie and other(a) Sultans of Steel Andrew Carnegie started off as a poor boy in a bad job, but by working hard, assuming responsibility, and capture influential people, He started in the Pittsburgh area, but he was not a man who liked trusts still, by 1900, he was producing 1/4 of the nations Bessemer steel, and get $25 million a year. . J. Pierson Morgan, having already do a peril in the banking industry an d in Wall Street, was ready to tone into the steel tubing industry, but Carnegie threaten De to ruin him, so after some tense negotiation, Morgan bought Carn elds entire business s at $ cd million (this was before income tax). Meanwhile, Morgan took Carn get along withs holdings, added others, and launched the United States Steel Corp oration in 1 901, a company that became the worlds first bill nodular corporation XII.Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose In 1 859, a man named Drake first use oil to get money, and by the asses, eke Rosen, a type of oil, was utilize to crystalise lamps all over the nation. 2. However, by 1 885, 250,000 of Editions electric light bulbs were in use, and the electric industry soon rendered kerosene obsolete, just as kerosene had do whale oil obsolete. Oil, however, was just beginning with the coin internal combustion n engine. tooshie D.Rockefeller, ruthless and merciless, organized the criterion Oil Company of Ohio in 1882 Rockefeller crushed weaker competitors-?part Of the natural process accords Eng to him-?but his company did produce superior oil at a cheaper price. XIII. The gospel singing of Wealth Many of the newly rich had worked from poverty to wealth, and therefore felt that some people in the world were destined to hold up rich and then help society with t he ir money. This was the evangel of Wealth. Social Darwinism applied Charles Darnings surreptitiousness theories to easiness.It said the reason a Carnegie was at the top of the steel industry WA s that he was most fit 3. To run such a business. Corporate lava,n. Years used the fourteenth Amendment to defend trusts, the judges gar deed, saying that corporations were legal people and and then entitled to their property, and plutocracy ruled. XIV. Government Tackles the Trust Evil 1. In 1890, the Sherman AntiTrust affect was signed into law it forbade combinations (trusts, pools, interlocking directorates, holding companies) in restraint of lot e, without any distinction between good and bad trusts. O It proven ineffective, however, because it couldnt be en wedged.Not until 1 914 was it properly en twinged and those prosecuted for violating the law were actually punished. W. The south in the Age Of exertion The South remained agrarian despite all the industrial advances, though Jam Buchanan Duke developed a huge tail end industry in the form of the Aimer can Tobacco Company and made many donations to what is now Duke university. Men like Henry W. Grady, editor of the capital of Georgia Constitution newspaper urged the South to industrialized. 3. The Impact of the New Industrial alteration on America a As the Industrial Revolution allot in America, the standard of living rose, immigrants swarmed to the U.S. , and early Jeffersonian ideals about the ascendency Of agriculture fell. Women, who had swarmed to factories and had been encouraged by recent inventions, found new opportunities, and the Gibson Girl, created by Charge s Dana Gibson, became the romantic ideal of the age. 4. Strong pressures in outside employment developed as the tireless industrial machine imperil to flood the domestic market. XVI. The Impact Of The Industrial Revolution On America 1. The standard of living rose sharply and Americans enjoyed more physical co inform than their co unterparts in other industrial nation. old(a) way of life changed. agrestic immigrants used to living by nature had to a adapt to mill whistles. Women were profoundly affected by the new industrial age. They were intro educed to the age with the typewriters and telephone switchboard, a new image of an independent and athletic little female child came out. XVII. In Unions There Is Strength With the inflow of immigrants providing a labor force that would work for low wages and in poor environments, the workers who wanted to modify their condition NSA found that they could not, since their bosses could easily hire the unemployed to TA eke their places.Industry Comes of AgeSpanning the Continent with Rails Deadlock over where to build a transcontinental railroad was broken after the South exceed, and in 1862, Congress commissioned the Union Pacific Railroad to b gin westbound from Omaha, Nebraska, to goldbrick Over in California, the Central Pacific Railroad was in charge of exten ding the r aileron eastward, and it was backed by the Big Four including Leland Stanford, the regulator of California who had useful political connections, and Collies P. Huntington, an adept lobbyist.The Central Pacific used Chinese workers, and received the same incentives a s the Union Pacific, but it had to drill through the hard Ill. Binding the Country with Railroad Ties 1. forrader 1 900, four other transcontinental railroads were built 2. However, many pioneers overstressed on land, and the banks that supported them often failed and went bankrupt when the land wasnt worth as much as initial y thought. IV. Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization Older eastern railroads, like the New York Central, headed by Cornelius Band rebuilt, often financed the thriving western railroads.Advancements in railroads included the steel rail, which was stronger and MO enduring than the iron rail, the Westinghouse air brake which increased safest y, the Pullman Palace Cars which were luxurio us passenger cars, and telegraphs, doubleheaders, and square block signals. V. Revolution by Railways Railroads stitched the nation together, generated a huge market and lots of Joe BBS, helped the rapid industrialization of America, and stimulated mining and agric ultra in the West by bringing people and supplies to and from the areas where such w Org occurred. . Railroads helped people settle in the previously harsh Great Plains. 3. Due to railroads, the presentation of four national time zones occurred on Novel beer 18, 1883, instead of each(prenominal) city having its own time zone 4. Railroads were also the makers of millionaires and the millionaire class. VI. Wrongdoing in Railroading Railroads were not without corruption, as shown by the Credit Immobile scans Jay Gould made millions embezzling stocks from the Erie, Kansas Pacific, the Union Pacific, and the Texas and Pacific railroad companies. . One method Of cheap moneymaking(a) was called stock watering, in which rail road companies grossly overindulged the worth of their stock and sold them at hug e profits. 4. As time passed, though, railroad giants entered into defensive alliances to shoo profits, and began the first of what would be called trusts, although at that it me they were called pools. A pool (AKA, a cartel) is a group of supposed competitor who change course to work together, usually to set prices. VII. Government Bridles the Iron Horse 1.People were aware of such injustice, but were slow to combat it. 2. The Grange was formed by farmers to combat such corruption, and many sat et efforts to stop the railroad monopoly occurred, but they were halt when the Sup Court issued its ruling in the Wabash case, in which it ruled that states could n tot regulate interstate Wabash, SST. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois art , such as trains. 3. The Interstate Commerce Act , passed in 1887, proscribed rebates and pools and squired the railroads to publish their rates openly .The act was not a success against corporate wealth, as people like Richard Lonely, a shrewd corporate lawyer, no Ted that they could use the act to their advantage, but it did represent the first attempt t by Congress to regulate businesses for society interest. VIII. Miracles of Mechanization In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone and a new age was la munched. 2. Thomas Edison, the Wizard Of Menlo park, was the most versatile inventor, who, while silk hat known for his electric light bulb, also cranked out scores of other in mentions. K The Trust Titan Emerges 1 . Andrew Carnegie used a method called vertical integration, which meant that he bought out and controlled all aspects of an industry 2. John D. Rockefeller, master of horizontal Integration, simply allied with or bought out competitors to monopolize a given market. 3. These men became known for their trusts , giant, monopolistic corporations. J. P. Morgan also position his own men on the boards of director s of other rival competitors to gain mould there and reduce competition a process called interlocking directorates.X. The supremacy of Steel In Lincoln day, steel was very scarce and expensive, but by 1 900, Americans produced as much steel as England and Germany combined. 2. This was repayable to an invention that made stalemating cheaper and much more effective the Bessemer process, which was named after an side inventor e even though an American, William Kelly, had discovered it first 0 Cold air blown on redroot iron burnt-out carbon deposits and purified it.America a was one of the few nations that had a lot of burn for fuel, iron for smelting, and other e essential ingredients for steel making, and gum olibanum, quickly became 1. SKI. Carnegie and opposite Sultans of Steel Andrew Carnegie started off as a poor boy in a bad job, but by working hard, assuming responsibility, and entrance influential people, He started in the Pittsburgh area, but he was not a man who liked trusts still, by 1900, he was producing 1/4 of the nations Bessemer steel, and acquiring $25 million a year. . J. Pierson Morgan, having already made a wad in the banking industry an d in Wall Street, was ready to measuring rod into the steel tubing industry, but Carnegie threaten De to ruin him, so after some tense negotiation, Morgan bought Carnages entire business s at $four hundred million (this was before income tax). Meanwhile, Morgan took Carnages holdings, added others, and launched the United States Steel Corporation in 1 901, a company that became the worlds first bill nodular corporation XII.Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose In 1 859, a man named Drake first used oil to get money, and by the asses, eke Rosen, a type of oil, was used to light lamps all over the nation. 2. However, by 1 885, 250,000 of Editions electric light bulbs were in use, and the electric industry soon rendered kerosene obsolete, just as kerosene had made whale oil obsolete. Oil, however, wa s just beginning with the sloganeer internal combustion n engine. John D.Rockefeller, ruthless and merciless, organized the archetype Oil Company of Ohio in 1882 Rockefeller crushed weaker competitors-?part Of the natural process accords Eng to him-?but his company did produce superior oil at a cheaper price. XIII. The Gospel of Wealth Many of the newly rich had worked from poverty to wealth, and thus felt that some people in the world were destined to exit rich and then help society with t heir money. This was the Gospel of Wealth. Social Darwinism applied Charles Darnings surreptitiousness theories to easiness.It said the reason a Carnegie was at the top of the steel industry WA s that he was most fit 3. To run such a business. Corporate lava,n. Years used the fourteenth Amendment to defend trusts, the judges gar deed, saying that corporations were legal people and thus entitled to their property, and plutocracy ruled. XIV. Government Tackles the Trust Evil 1. In 1890, the She rman AntiTrust Act was signed into law it forbade combinations (trusts, pools, interlocking directorates, holding companies) in restraint of trade e, without any distinction between good and bad trusts. O It proved ineffective, however, because it couldnt be enforced.Not until 1 914 was it properly enforced and those prosecuted for violating the law were actually punished. W. The South in the Age Of Industry The South remained agrarian despite all the industrial advances, though Jam Buchanan Duke developed a huge fundament industry in the form of the Aimer can Tobacco Company and made many donations to what is now Duke university. Men like Henry W. Grady, editor of the battle of Atlanta Constitution newspaper urged the South to industrialized. 3. The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America a As the Industrial Revolution bed covering in America, the standard of living rose, immigrants swarmed to the U.S. , and early Jeffersonian ideals about the empowerment Of agricultu re fell. Women, who had swarmed to factories and had been encouraged by recent inventions, found new opportunities, and the Gibson Girl, created by Charge s Dana Gibson, became the romantic ideal of the age. 4. Strong pressures in distant trade developed as the tireless industrial machine threaten to flood the domestic market. XVI. The Impact Of The Industrial Revolution On America 1. The standard of living rose sharply and Americans enjoyed more physical co inform than their counterparts in other industrial nation.Older way of life changed. unpolished immigrants used to living by nature had to a adapt to manufacturing plant whistles. Women were profoundly affected by the new industrial age. They were intro educed to the age with the typewriters and telephone switchboard, a new image of an independent and athletic girl came out. XVII. In Unions There Is Strength With the inflow of immigrants providing a labor force that would work for low wages and in poor environments, the worke rs who wanted to cleanse their condition NSA found that they could not, since their bosses could easily hire the unemployed to TA eke their places.

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