Friday, March 1, 2019
Psychological theories Essay
thither are several psychological theories that try to experience human air. They are mainly divided into six groups each with its focus (Burke, 2008). The behavioral theories sapidity at human behavior based on the idea that it is by means of conditioning that behavior is acquired. Cognitive theories savour at internalized states such as p pawnlem solving and motivation. Developmental theories offer thoughts on human development, festering and learnedness. Humanist theories look at human experiences as part of joint human needs and condition. constitution theories examine patterns of behavior, feelings and thoughts unique to a person. complaisant psychology theories examine social behavior and social phenomenon. All the theories look at human organism and try to explain it (Burke, 2008). The theories offer as well knowledge that ground take some(prenominal) judgment of convictions help modify behavior. emergence up my experiences have led me to prove or disapprove some o f these psychological theories. On reflection some theories seem to explain the behaviors that I exhibited. Developmental theory. One of the theories that explain my behavior as a teenager is the social larn theory.The theory proposed by Albert Bandura argues that one of the steerings that good deal learn new behaviors is by observing other massess behavior (Bandura, 1976). In my case, growing up as a new cheer attractor I looked at how other girls behaved at cheerleading tournament to decipher what the proper behavior was in sure situations. By looking at how my groupmates remained optimistic and cheered wildly hitherto when our team was down, I imitated their behavior as the right thing to do. Bandura offered concepts to canonical social learning. To begin with social learning depends on and begins with observational learning (Bandura, 1976).He identified three pretenses of observational learning a raging model, a verbal instructional model and a symbolic model (Bandur a, 1976). In my case, I was modeling my behavior after live models who were my teammates. complaisant learning alike involves mental states. While extrinsic reinforcement plays a big role in learning, intrinsic reinforcement influences behavior. He piece that reenforcement received on the inside of a person alike satisfaction and pride influences learning and subsequent behavior. In my case, one of the rewards was adapted in with my teammates.The cheerleading squad was very close and if one did non add in they would be treated as an outsider. So I notice the skills of my team mates especi aloney those who were able to rally everyone. By followers in their footsteps, I was soon able to encourage my teammates even when our team was doing poorly. I was happy that soon they would not want to attend both hearten games without me around and nominated me to be head of the cheerleading squad. Looking cover charge, I can see that my behavior was fueled by the internal reward of acceptance and bewilderment.Bandura also noted that though learning may deal out place and new training may be gotten, behavioral interchange may not occur (Bandura, 1976). Some factors affect the function of learning influencing the outcome. Models who inspire interest facilitate learning since learners can give them the prerequisite attention required for learning. In my case, I had evermore admired the sprightly squad of our school. As a result, I fully dedicated myself to the serve up of learning how to be like them. Everything that the leader taught us was something I had everlastingly wanted to know and I felt lucky to have the leader mentor me.A learners ability to go forward information gathered affects learning (Bandura, 1976). If information can not be retrieved, it can not be acted upon. One of the factors that affect retention of information is a brains condition. A young brain like mine was without defects was able to retain information and retrieve it. Bein g able to retain the information and retrieve it meant that the learning would be a continuous process (Bandura, 1976). Next in the learning process is reproduction of the observed and hold behavior. In my case I got a lot of opportunity to manifold the desired behavior.Every clock we had a tournament I would enforce the behavior I was learning. With lots of practice, I was able to have the similar behavior the other cheering squad extremitys had and no one force have known who learnt from whom. need plays the last part of learning (Bandura, 1976). Motivation to learn the desired behavior can be through lead reinforcement of the learner or what the learner observes others receive. In my case, seeing the admiration the cheering squad got even before I joined them propel me to pursue joining the squad.After joining the squad, I noticed how the cheering squad members got attention and praise. I was thence motivated to excel in my cheering skills. Personality theory One of th e personality theories that can also explain my behavior is the trait personality theory. The trait theory proposes that peoples personalities are made up of diverse inclinations (Burke, 2008). The traits are abiding characteristic that make people behave in a certain manner. Several traits when vie together are what make up a personality.Several psychologists have come up with proposals of personality. One of the personality compartmentalization is the Big Five personality which presents five balances to the human personality that determines our behavior (Burke, 2008). One of the five balances is extraversion referring to an individuals declareiveness of emotional feelings (Engler, 2008). In my case being emotionally open I was able to express what I wanted from the cheering squad and if I was unhappy I found myself voicing my disapproval. Sometimes the squad would make fun of teams playing against our team.I would always be open about my disapproval and would not participat e if I felt that our behavior was closing the line. The second dimension is agreeableness referring to attributes that promote social behaviors (Engler, 2008). Some people are able to be sociable with others and fit in quickly with the cheering squad. alter with others would be the highlight of my day and I found that I always picked activities that leaned towards socializing. Whenever a new member joined the squad I would be curious to know about them and I was the one introducing them to the others.The third dimension is conscientiousness referring to traits of organization, impulse control and stopping point centered behaviors (Engler, 2008). People with these traits behave in ways that are organized. In my case I was praised for my promptitude and seriousness in our training. I found that if I was serious with my goal I had to see it through by giving it the right time and effort. Many trainees dropped out because the training required lots of dedication. For me, school work a nd my training could be combined by thoroughly planning all the details involved and being aware of what each needed.The fourth dimension is neuroticism referring to people who tend to exhibit anxiety, moodiness and emotional instability (Engler, 2008). scorn being in similar situations with others, these tend to extract different reaction. In my case I found my time as a member of the cheering squad to be fun. Though umteen times things didnt go the way I wanted them to, to brood over that would rob me of opportunities to have a good time. By being myself, I was therefore able to enjoy my cheering time and I look back at it with happiness. The last dimension is openness (Engler, 2008).People with this trait show a lot of interests, insight and imagination. These people usually have galore(postnominal) hobbies and are involved in many activities. In my case being a member of the cheering squad was only part of the many interests I had. I was a member of about five clubs and a le ader in three of them. I was happy to be a cheering squad member and enjoyed coming up with new unremarkable moves. I became the youngest cheerleader in the history of my school and we had the most unique routines during controversy thanks to my creativity and the invitation I gave to all the members to share their creations.Although the developmental and personality theories do not fully explain all my behaviors during my cheering time in school, they enlighten some of the behaviors and explain why I behaved the way I did. References Albert Bandura. (1976). Social Learning Theory. New jersey Prentice Hall. Barbara Engler. (2008). Personality Theories. Boston Wadsworth publishing. Peter, J. Burke(Ed. ). (2006). Contemporary Social theories. Carlifornia Stanford Sciences.